Egypt - one of those countries, a visit which allows you to see firsthand the beauty of the ancient world, stored in the magnificent works of architecture.
Ancient Egypt - the beginning of the birth of modern civilization
It belongs to the first state that appeared in the world in the distant past (there were a few - those details of which have survived to this age).They appeared on the territory of the ancient East there existed thanks to good living conditions (climate, availability of water) at the beginning of the III millennium. BC.e.These include Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China.
Ancient Egypt (a brief look at the history of this country) was located in the valley of the Nile River.Only on its coast and in the desert oases of life was possible.All the rest of the ancient country is desert.She appeared as a great danger to the Egyptians - advancing sands, which had to fight all year round and win the land suitable for cultivation, drying wind, tearing the country in April and May ... But at the same time carrying the desert and the benefit: it contributed to the formation in the valley wetand temperate climate for successful farming was a natural barrier against attacks from other countries.Here, on the banks of the Nile, covered with fertile black soil, and there was a great civilization of Egypt, the beautiful works of art and magnificent architectural structures which modern man can admire today.
Great rulers - the embodiment of the gods on earth
They - elect of the gods, intermediaries between heaven and earth, immovable center of the country.The history of ancient Egypt has more than four thousand years, and all these long centuries it was a single entity - the state in which time seemed frozen.
Pharaoh value expressed in the fact that with the coming to power of the king to the country began a new era and a new countdown.The governor, the earthly embodiment of the god Horus (Horus), had jealously watch over the main wealth entrusted to him by the gods - Egypt.He eradicated the violence and evil, establish justice, order and harmony.
One of the main responsibilities of the pharaoh was the construction of houses for the great gods.The ancient temples of Egypt, built in large numbers, glorified Osiris, Isis, Ra and other deities.Pharaoh himself was both high priest, who conducted religious rites and ceremonies.It was believed that the gods can only hear him.Therefore, the ancient temples were of great importance in the life of the Egyptians.
Time has preserved for us only a fraction of works of art of the ancient Egyptians.A great number of precious objects buried with the pharaohs in the pyramids, but still found today in the tombs of the kings were looted thousands of years ago.Only the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun gave the world an idea of the great skill of the ancient artists, potters and jewelers.
there and then, what could not even manage time.This ancient Egyptian temples and pyramids.Of course, the past millennium greatly affected their safety, and some of the architectural structures have disappeared.But also to preserve the ancient temples can give insight into the lives of Egyptians and their religion.Due to the fact that the walls were covered with frescoes of plants with scenes glorifying the Pharaohs, and inscriptions telling of their deeds, we now know a lot about that time.
majestic temples of ancient Egypt and the monumental pyramids - the basic model of architecture builders of the past.It is believed that in this country began the history of architecture.Due to the lack of forests in the building materials there were limestone, sandstone, granite and brick raw.Stone went to the construction of the pyramids and temples of brick built palaces and fortresses.
feature of Egyptian architecture is that the stonework done without the use of the coupling solutions.Inside and outside the walls of temples and pillars were decorated with frescoes, figures and inscriptions.All of them were symbolic.
See the work of the ancient architects can be personally or photo Egypt.The temples and pyramids, even the images are striking in their monumentality, severity of lines and sublime tranquility.
As ancient architectural structures erected
Pyramids - one of the mysteries of history that modern man still can not solve.Actually, everything that is connected with them - one big puzzle.Scientists still are not sure that the pyramids were built as a funerary complexes of the pharaohs.Exactly how they were constructed, given the absence of any processing and delivery of giant blocks of stone - another mystery of the pyramids.
On the construction of churches is known much more.There were three types: rocky, poluskalnyh and ground.Last erected on a particular type.It was a rectangle surrounded by high walls.From the Nile to the temple usually it led the way, that on both sides decorated with statues of sphinxes.Facilities were not a finished composition, they were built on the principle of formoslozheniya - buildings joined up to each other.
rock temples had an outer facade, the rest of the premises were cut in the rock.Poluskalnyh complexes were built in part on the surface and partly - in the rocks.
compulsory element of the temples were columns.In the hall of the temple of Karnak 134. They are often portrayed bundles of reeds.
ancient temples of Egypt had no windows.They were covered by small apertures below the roof.
Mandatory been lining the walls of the temple complex or coating with painting colors.
great female pharaoh and her sanctuary
One of the most beautiful buildings of Egypt - Hatshepsut Temple - was built for the great ruler, led the country in the era of the New Kingdom.
In the history of this ancient state was only a few cases, when power passed into the hands of women, and it happens in moments of crisis.Hatshepsut, the queen purebred daughter of Thutmose I, was the high priestess of Amun, which largely helped her get over the reins of Egypt.She became the wife of his brother Tuthmosis II, and after her husband's death from illness to lead the country.
known as the Queen of the pharaoh builder.During her reign (22 years) was built many temples, obelisks, temples, rebuilt the ruined monuments of the Hyksos conquerors.
doleful temple of Hatshepsut is located to the west of Thebes, and refers to the type poluskalnyh.In ancient times it was called "Jeseru Jeseru" - "sacred of sacred" and called it in honor of Queen Hatshepsut began much later.
builder of this magnificent architectural complex was the architect senenmut which subsequently great female pharaoh entrusted the upbringing of his daughter Nefrura.The temple was built in record time - 9 years.He carved in the rocks and it seems their natural extension.It consists of three huge terraces, which are located one above the other.Each has an outdoor courtyard and the sanctuary.In ancient times, the road to the first terrace has been planted with myrrh tree, especially for the importations of Egypt.According to tradition, the road was decorated and brightly colored sphinxes.
primitive beauty of the Temple of Hatshepsut lost.He suffered from time and earthquakes.But now, a magnificent monument of antiquity is striking in its grandeur and severity of lines.
ancient beauty of Luxor
Not only monumentality and grandeur of the famous pyramids of Egypt can strike.Karnak temple dedicated to the god Amon-Ra, is the largest architectural complex of the country.
It is located on the right bank of the Nile in the small village of Carnac three kilometers away from another famous temple - Luxor.With him it connects long avenue adorned with statues of sphinxes.In ancient times it was called Ipet-Isut.Huge temple complex was built over a thousand years.
Sanctuary built in honor of the god Amun-Ra, but also includes other temples of Egyptian deities - Khonsu, Ptah, Montu, Mut.Here are the chapel, numerous obelisks, statues of pharaohs and the sacred lake.
Center Karnak and his pride - Large columned hall.It was built during the reign of Pharaoh Seti I and Ramses II.There are 134 columns arranged in 16 rows.The larger ones have a height of 8-storey building.
dimensions of the temple complex is huge.It houses more than 30 churches.Most of the area is closed to tourists because it does not stop the archaeological excavations and restoration of ancient monuments.Currently, literally piece by piece recreates the Avenue of the Sphinxes.
holy place of the Christian world in the land of the Pharaohs
country of many religions - so you can confidently characterize Egypt.Catherine's Church - one of the holiest sites of Christendom - is on its territory.The structure has existed for 1,600 years.The temple was founded in the IV century and fortified by order of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the VI century.
Church of St. Catherine in Egypt, built at the foot of Mount Sinai, where, according to Biblical tradition, Moses received from God appeared to him in flames Burning bush, the Ten Commandments.It is named after the Christian enlightener Catherine, who lived in the III century, tortured and beheaded for refusing to renounce the faith in Christ.
Catherine Church - is a small town, including a monastery, temple and hundreds of other buildings.
in Egypt you can see many magnificent temples.One of them is interesting because it is carved into the rock, and is only the facade outside.More precisely, the two couples sanctuary: Pharaoh Ramses II and Queen Nefertari.One of their purpose - to define the southern boundary of the state.Sanctuary is famous for its giant statues depicting the pharaoh and his wife.
In the ancient Egyptian temples were an important part of the religious life of a great country.Today their value is the cultural heritage they represent.Architectural monuments enable modern man to touch the ancient times and let you know more about the history of ancient Egypt.