Russia's banking system is not uniform: it contains large and small players, as well as institutions in which different key indicator - the share of the state.What is the specific operation of credit institutions, dominated by the amount of assets owned by government?
What is the state-owned bank?
Credit institutions that are owned by the government (based on membership of a controlling stake) and manage them are state-owned banks.The main function of such organizations - lending significant from the point of view of the national policy of economic entities, as well as the related investments and settlement operations.As a rule, state banks Russian service key, strategically important sector of the economy that affect the country's position in the international business arena, and the work that is difficult to credit institutions with private capital.
government, having its own financial institutions, foreign trade leads, internal controls major sectors (such as agriculture), has a policy in the regions of the country, manages investments in national projects.There is, therefore, a number of clear criteria to determine which banks - the state.In Russia, these institutions play a key role in the national financial policy.
central banks.Who owns the Bank of Russia?
Central Bank (Bank of Russia) - subspecies of the public credit institution.Its functions - macroeconomic management of the national economy, control over the financial institutions with private capital, participation in international monetary processes facilitate the implementation of strategic programs for the development of the country.Central Bank manages the strategic reserves of the state.The legal status of the Central Bank of Russia, as experts believe, is rather ambiguous.On the one hand, the authorized capital of the Central Bank of the country is the property of the federation.
However, the institution responsible for the obligations of the state (but not vice versa), operates from its own revenues.It turns out that in terms of the law of the Central Bank of Russia is independent of the Government.Not quite right to argue that the Bank of Russia - the public authority.If you adhere to this point of view, the state is far from being the absolute volume authority on the use of the assets of the Central Bank in the form of reserves.And if, for example, the government expresses any intention, the Central Bank has the right to appeal to international courts.
CB: assets abroad
central bank has so-called Russian banks abroad - credit institutions that are active abroad.Among those - "Moscow Narodny Bank" (located in London), "Ost-West Handelsbank" (Frankfurt), "Eurobank" (Paris).Russian banks with state participation, therefore, is in the most developed countries of Europe.
role of the financial institutions of this type is to improve the mechanism of payment and credit transactions with foreign entities.Russian banks abroad are able to attract investments for the needs of the state, which is good for the economy.As a rule, the profitability of these institutions (and the amount of tax payments to the budget) is higher than that of commercial banks.
country's largest state banks
Sberbank of Russia (the Russian Security Council) - the largest credit institution in terms of assets with state participation.About 60% of the shares of the financial institution belongs to the authorities, 40% - in public circulation.The Russian state-owned bank established during the Soviet era, but the index of the share of private owned - one of the highest in the market.
For example, assets Agricultural Bank is 100% owned by Federal Property Management Agency (one of the main authorities in the structure of banks' assets).Another example of a major credit state organizations - VTB Bank.Federal Property Management Agency owns slightly more than 75% of the shares of the institution.Quite a large proportion of which belongs to the government, is also present in Gazprombank.
Vnesheconombank Vnesheconombank (VEB) - the credit institution, which occupies a specific position in the banking system of our country.The fact that the activity is carried out without a license and is not subject to supervision, while the other Russian state banks have to deal with these phenomena.Vnesheconombank more than 90 years, and in terms of the law, he is a public corporation.In the practice of the activities of the institution are acceptable debt.Variants of cooperation of Vnesheconombank and other state institutions of credit - Eximbank (created to support exports).If this happens, then in the hands of the authorities will be a tool to support foreign trade with the help of partial guarantees.However, some noise, as some experts believe, for this kind of work can become a VEB old debts.
Experts: state-owned banks should be different levels
banking market experts point out that the development of the banking system of the country should have clear guidelines.One of these experts see a system of subordination between credit institutions of different levels.For banks that have to stand on the top position, it is proposed to carry the Agricultural Bank and RDB and the World Bank.Their activities can be linked to the financial security of the investment policy, the development of the agricultural sector.
on the "second level" - Sberbank, VTB, VEB and Eximbank.In particular, the function of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, experts say, should be concentrated around the problems associated with savings deposits and to prevent expansion in the segments of commerce.Russian state-owned banks "third level" on the idea of experts should be universal: to lend, to participate in making payments, and so on. D. Entry of this category of banks in the first two, according to financiers, must be resistant barriers.
Efficiency of state-owned banks
In recent years, carried out research related to the development of the Russian banking system.In one of them it was revealed the efficiency of banks, including the government.The study also examined the organization and with foreign participation.Credit institutions, according to the results of the experts were divided into five groups: state-owned banks, taking into account the Russian Security Council, state-owned banks that are not related to the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the private banks with the central office in Moscow or St. Petersburg, private banks in the region, as well assubsidiaries of foreign financial institutions.
found that the most effective - is included in the group with the Russian Security Council Russian state banks.A list of a plurality of criteria included in the study, confirmed this.Their nearest pursuers on a scale of quality of work turned out to be the private banks from Moscow.However, the effectiveness of the Security Council of the Russian Federation was slightly lower than the average for the group of the ten largest banks in terms of assets (but still higher than the average for the above five groups of institutions).
reliability of state-owned banks
Many financiers (and ordinary people) believe that the Russian state-owned banks are more reliable than private.It is, as the practice of credit institutions, broadly in line with reality.Experts believe that there are some logical explanation.Firstly, the state-owned banks at the expense of greater historical experience has extensive tools for regional expansion and gains client confidence.Second, believe financiers, the government often sponsors projects without going into too much cost-benefit analysis, which is absolutely not characteristic of private credit institutions.Third, state-owned banks can afford to hire people at a lower wage level, which generally increases the operational efficiency and competitiveness of the companies compared with private banks.
Prospects state banks
Among some financial market experts popular thesis that the proportion of state involvement in banks will be gradually reduced.However, instead of owning assets of institutions, the authorities will seek to implement the right people at the controls.There is also the opposite view, according to which a reduction of state ownership in the banking system is not the most pronounced perspective: in the specific case of the legal framework.According to the second view, the conversion will be carried out if, in fact, reflect a formal transfer of shares (or sharing functions) between different state agencies.Among other nuances that define the prospects of credit institutions with state participation - the share of the Central Bank in the management of commercial banks.
There is a perception of the need to withdraw from the capital of the Central Bank of private financial institutions as well as the position of the Central Bank as the owner is contrary to his or her task to oversee and work in the interests of the economy of the whole country.The year in which a certain rate may be subject to reform state banks of Russia - 2014, a list of possible reforms likely to be published in the pages of bulletin of the Central Bank or the specialized media.