passenger airliner Tu-154, which became the most popular in the Soviet Union jet, conceived as a replacement for the Il-18 and An-10, which in the early sixties were the basis of the aircraft fleet of Aeroflot.It required a new, more high-speed, economical and comfortable car, some such as the American Boeing 727.
similarity of technical requirements dictated by a similar scheme - a monoplane with swept low-wing, empennage with stabilizers on the elevator and three engines: one central and two built-in pole brackets on the sides of the rear fuselage.
In 1968, the Tu-154 took to the skies.Four years later, in 1972, began commercial operation on the Moscow-Mineralnye Vody.
first modification called Tu-154 A. The improvement consisted mainly in the installation of engines NK-2-U - more powerful than anticipated in the initial version.
Since 1976, the liner was modified again, this time the changes were larger, they were subjected to and the mechanization of the wing, and the passenger cabin and avionics.In this type of aircraft was called Tu-154B and are available until 1981.Although initially proposed to rename it to the Tu-164, it was so significant design improvements.When planned repair airliners early releases to re-equip the technical level of the last modification.
However, stresses in the glider continued satisfactory technicians servicing the airplane.During each of the cladding fell from rivets, they had to be restored.This deficiency, as well as a number of other problems persists in the third pillar (and there have been more than two dozen) modification.
In 1984 he graduated from the work on the creation of the Tu-154M.These ships were built more than three hundred.The result is a great airplane.The number of passengers has increased to 180 people, and significantly improved the reliability of the liner.Evidence of "survivability" of the aircraft in difficult conditions was the masterfully executed landing on an abandoned airfield near the city of Ukhta in 2010, when the pilot managed to save the lives of passengers in the complete failure of electrical equipment onboard.The Tu-154 restored its operation continued.
The crash of the presidential plane Air Force of Poland in Smolensk, which took place in the same year, gave rise to talk about the unreliability of aircraft of Soviet production, but that investigation has proven that caused it was forcing the pilot to land in adverse weather conditions, in which all the most modern airlinerI would have behaved much the same.
In general, it is believed that the service life of the Tu-154 M allows it to serve as a quarter of a century or stay in the air fifteen thousand hours.Cruising the ceiling is more than 12 kilometers, and speed - 900 km / h.Held by many airlines in Russia, CIS and foreign aircraft, well-made and able to carry passengers, can be upgraded, equipped with digital avionics, and even after some refinement used as fuel liquefied petroleum gas.Since the late nineties Bureau named.ANTupolev offers to perform the work to extend the service life and bringing the Tu-154 to the level of modern requirements for airliners.Customers have.