Events antiquity always controversial: if there is no reliable data, it is difficult to prove their case.After writing has appeared in more recent times than the known historical events, which have not been reported and have reached us in the form of myths and legends.The debate underway about the origin of the Slavs, the creation of ancient Russia, and about what the Slavic state emerged before the rest.
origin and settlement of the Slavs
According to historical data, in the VIII century BC Indo-European tribes lived in the area of the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.Because these places and the people are having three branches, which are moved in different directions:
- Celts, Germans and Latins settled in Western and Southern Europe,
- baltoslavyane settled in the area between the Vistula and the Dnieper,
- Iranian and Indianpeoples settled in West and South Asia.
This happened in the II century BC.And only in the V century BC by baltoslavyan stood out branch of the Slavs, who settled in Central Europe.What Slavic state emerged before the others, in what century did this happen?
settlement of the Slavs
It baltoslavyanskih of peoples and any Western, Southern and Eastern Slavs, occupying respectively: Central Europe, the Balkans and Eastern Europe.The Western Slavs are the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, coast-dwellers from the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, the tribes on the east side of the river Elbe.Balkan Peninsula inhabited South Slavic nations: Serbs, Croats, Bulgarians.Under the Eastern Slavs ancestors meant Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples.
During the great migration of peoples Slavs occupied the vast territory of eastern Europe and the Balkans.From VII century AD already appeared information about the first Slavic states.Nearby nations combined and formed into the state structures and began to oppress the Slavs.What Slavic state emerged before anyone among the tribes that occupied considerable territory?
itself and its power
It is in the VII century BC came the first union of tribes under the control of the leader of the Slavs - itself.In this power included the territory of the Moravian, Slovak.They announced their capital city of Visegrad, which stands on the River Morava.It is a Slavic state emerged before the rest.
about the life and personality very little is known: it was a Frankish merchant who became the founder of the empire in 620 - 623 years.The chronicles Fredegarda there is a brief mention of the life itself, and that he was a Gentile.Although at this time the Franks were Christians.
very first ancient Slavic state emerged from the constant attacks of the Avars in their land: it was the neighbor's Empire, located on the territory of today's Hungary, and constantly sent to the devastating raids of their marauders, creating violence against the civilian population.As a result, there was an uprising of the Slavs against the Avars.It goes with his men supported the Slavic rebellion.He won all battles and was a strong, brave warrior.
bravery and leadership skills led to the very fact that he was elected king.Rules of the empire it to 658 AD - 35 years.Frankish chronicler wrote Fredegard goes that during the years of his rule were not lost a single battle.Even the battle with the Frankish Empire and its rulers Dagobert, in 631, ended in victory for the Slavs.
Died itself in 658 - 659 year.As follows from the records Fredegarda, the ruler of the empire had 12 Slavic wives, who bore him 22 sons and 15 daughters.All 35 years they happily ruled an empire and had no injuries from enemies.What happened to the power after the death itself?Historians suggest that it broke up again into separate tribes.
Now, when it became clear what the Slavic state emerged earlier than others, and understand the reason for its appearance - for protection from enemies.
Great Moravian Empire
Later, at the beginning of the IX century, on the same areas of west there was another state - the Great Moravian Empire.Initially, it was dependent on the state francs.Then, it was subordinated to Germany.But soon the power gained its independence and has entered into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire.Freed from the influence of German, Moravian princes decided to get rid of their clergy, they were asked to send the Byzantine missionaries - priests to preach in the Slavonic language.So in Moravia in 863, there were educators from Bulgaria - Cyril and Methodius.They have done a great job: created the Slavic alphabet, using the Greek alphabet, translated several religious books.In Moravia, it was built many temples.
Yet principality collapsed in 906 year: a constant battle with Germany made her weak, and the Hungarians were able to defeat it, and part of the land grab.Analyzing is a Slavic state emerged before the others, it can not be said about Bulgaria.
emergence of the Bulgarian power dates back to the year 681.It was a strong union of Slavic and Turkic tribes.Bulgarian kingdom actively developed, fought with Byzantium, the Slavs.The rulers of the country, Boris I and his son Simeon, strengthened and expanded its borders to the Black Sea.The capital of the kingdom was a city Preslav.It is a Slavic state emerged before the others, even before the Great Moravian empire.
Simeon was one of the rulers, who declared a state of genuine Christian customs.He was literate, educated at Constantinople, erudite king.Simeon led a competent economic policies that expand the boundaries of the state and even tried to become the ruler of Byzantium.
After the death of Simeon in 927, power had been subject to raids and Byzantines and Rus.And the country was torn apart by internal contradictions.In 1014 began the fall of the Bulgarian kingdom.About , a Slavic state emerged before the others, it can be traced to the chronicles, in which they say, and the creation of Russia.
state Kievan Rus emerged at the turn of the IX century.These were the tribes of the Eastern Slavs, who have come together.But the establishment of the country took place over the centuries, in several stages.Nestor the Chronicler in the "Tale of Bygone Years" gave a description of the Kievan Rus, its formation and development.Gradually, the country became one of the strongest and most influential in Europe.It is important to know not only what the Slavic state emerged before the others, but its gradual formation and strength.
first and crucial stage - the union of the two principalities: the Novgorod and Kiev.Thanks to the work of Prophetic Oleg who conquered Kiev in 882 and established diplomatic relations with Byzantium, expanding the borders of Russia.The fact of combining the two principalities was marked by the emergence of the state of the Eastern Slavs.Already by 1054 all the Slavic tribes from the east were a part of Kievan Rus - it was her heyday.For a long time the country was united, but the threat of the collapse is still there.In 1132 Kievan Rus' finally disintegrated.
Slavic theory of the origin of the Old Russian state
There are several theories of the ancient Russian state, one of them - Slavic, or else it is called "autochthonous".According to this theory, statehood existed in Russia long before the ninth century.Historians say that in ancient times it was even three centers of the Slavs: Cuiaba, Artania, Slavia.
Vikings played a unifying role between north and south.From them was the name: Russia - from the tribe of "Rus".Nestor the Chronicler in the "Tale of Bygone Years" described the life of the Eastern Slavs before the arrival of the Vikings.He spoke about the three brothers - Slavs: Kie, cheek, Horeb.The eldest of them - cue reigned and made trips to the Constantinople, considered the founder of the dynasty of Slavic.Kiev was the center of the ancient associations of the field.
formation of ancient states, Slavic theory , confirmed by the legend of the Prince of Novgorod Gostomysl, who had three daughters.He lost all his children in campaigns and battles with the Scandinavians.When it became older, it turned out that he had no one to pass his dynasty.One of his daughters - Umila, was given for the Varyag - Russia, and she had three sons.Then he called Gostomysl their grandchildren - Rurik sineus and truvor as representatives of the Slavic race, take the principality.Confirmation of the legend is Ioakimovskaya chronicle.
Slavic theory of the origin of the Old Russian state based scientist MV Lomonosov.In the 19th century it became supporters of such historians as Belyaev, Ilichevsky and Zabelin.In his theory, Lomonosov argued in the XVIII century, that Rurik was not Scandinavian - it was a Slav.Vikings Slavs appeared much later and had the same roots with them.The existence of the Old Russian state, long before the emergence of Kievan Rus, according to the Jordan, Gothic chronicler, and "Elder Edda", and "The Book of Veles".They describe the conquest Germanareha goth, come down with fights to the Volga and the Caspian Sea.
war with the Goths
Arriving at the ancient Russian lands Germanareh first made peace, and then the marriage with the sister of the Slavic prince Booth, her name was Swan-CBA.She was married for 110 years Germanareha as payment for a peace treaty.And only after tragic events: Germanareh executed his wife and son, came back and defeated the Slavs.But defenders Ruskolani stood in the way ready and not allowed to reach the heart of the country.Brothers Swans-CBA, princes and Bus Zlatogor, avenged his sister and killed Germanareha.Thus began a Slavic-Gothic War.Statue Booth found in the North Caucasus, proves its existence:
Disputes historians last centuries: one theory refutes another.But on the correctness of the theory of Slavic say irrefutable facts even described Nestor.Is disorganized society, which are few and wild, will be able to collect and equip eighty thousandth army of 2,000 ships, which, moreover, can travel by land?A Prophetic Oleg led this campaign and nailed his shield on the gates of Constantinople - Constantinople!So Rurik reign came out of nowhere, and in a completely independent Slavic state.