Means of artistic expression: examples in the literature

Full, juicy, precise, vivid it best conveys thoughts, feelings and situation assessment.Hence the success in all your endeavors, as well constructed it is very accurate tool of persuasion.It briefly outlines some means of artistic expression a person needs to achieve the desired results from the world every day, and what - to replenish the arsenal of expressive speech in the literature.

special expressive language

verbal form, the ability to attract the attention of the listener or reader, to make it memorable by the novelty, originality, singularity, a departure from the usual and everyday - a linguistic expression.

It works well, any means of artistic expression in literature, for example, are known metaphor zvukopis, hyperbole, personification, and many others.You must master the special techniques and methods in combination, as the sounds in words and phraseology.

huge role played by the vocabulary, phraseology, grammar and phonetic features.Each means of artistic expression in literature works at all levels of proficiency.


The main thing here - zvukopis, special artistic technique based on the creation of sound images through sound repetitions.You can even imitate the sounds of the real world - chirping, whistling, noise, rain, etc., in order to trigger associations with the feelings and thoughts that you need to call the listener or reader.This is the main goal, which must reach a means of artistic expression.Examples of onomatopoeia contains most of the literary lyrics: here is especially good Balmont "Midnight at times ...".

Almost all the poets of the Silver Age zvukopisi used.Fine line left Lermontov, Pushkin, Boratynsky.The Symbolists also learned to call and auditory, visual and even olfactory, gustatory, tactile representations to move the imagination of the reader to experience certain feelings and emotions.

There are two main types, most fully disclosing zvukopisnye means of artistic expression.Examples Blok and Andrei Bely, they are often used only assonance - repeating the same vowel or similar sounding.The second type - alliteration , which often occurs already in Pushkin and Tiutchev, - a repetition of consonants - identical or similar.

vocabulary and phraseology

primary means of artistic expression in literature - trails that expressively portray the situation or object, using the word in its figurative sense.The main types of tropes: comparison, epithet, personification, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, paraphrase, litotes and hyperbole, irony .

tropes addition, there are simple and effective means of artistic expression.Examples:

  • antonyms, synonyms, homonyms, Paronyms;
  • idioms;
  • vocabulary painted stylistically, and vocabulary, uses limited.

last item includes slang and jargon, and even the vocabulary is not adopted in a decent society.Opposites are sometimes more effective than any epithets: What do you clean!- child swim in a pool.Synonyms brilliance and enhance the accuracy of the speech.Idiom pleased with the fact that the recipient hears a familiar and goes quickly on contact.These linguistic phenomena are not a direct means of artistic expression.Examples rather non-specific, fit for a particular action, or text, but can significantly add to the brightness of the image and the impact on the recipient.The beauty and vividness of speech are entirely dependent on what kind of tools for creating artistic expression used in it.

epithets and comparisons

epithet - the application or addition to the Greek.There is a significant trait important in this context, using figurative definition, based on implicit comparison.Most often this adjective: black melancholy morning sedoe, etc., but may be an epithet noun, adverb, gerund, pronouns and any other part of speech.You can divide the epithets used in the common language, national poetic and individual authoring tools of artistic expression.Examples of all three types: a deathly silence, my good fellow, curly dusk.You can divide the otherwise - in the figurative and expressive: the fog blue , crazy night. But every division, of course, very conditional.

Compare - a comparison of the same phenomenon, concept or object to another.Not to be confused with a metaphor, where the names are interchangeable, compared should be named both items, features, steps, etc.For example: the glow, like a meteor .Compare various ways.

  • ablative (youth nightingale flew );
  • comparative adjective or adverb ( eyes greener sea);
  • unions like as if etc.( like a beast creaking door);
  • words like like etc.( your eyes like two fog );
  • comparative clauses (golden foliage swam in the pond, like a flock of butterflies flying on a star ).

In folk poetry often used negative comparisons: That's not a top horse ..., poets often build a fairly large volume of work, using one is a means of artistic expression.In the literature, the classics can be seen, for example, in the poems Koltsov, Tiutchev, Northerner, Gogol's prose, Prishvina and many others.It was used by many.This is probably the most sought-after means of artistic expression.In the literature it is present everywhere.In addition, it serves as scientific and journalistic, and spoken text with the same zeal and success.

metaphor and personification

Another very widely used means of artistic expression in literature - a metaphor that means in Greek - transfer.Word or sentence is used in a figurative sense.The basis here is the absolute similarity of objects, events, actions, etc.Unlike comparisons metaphor is more compact.It leads only being compared or that.The similarities may be based on form, color, amount, purpose, sensation, etc. (Kaleidoscope phenomena, the spark of love, the sea of ​​letters, a treasure trove of poetry) .Metaphors can be divided into ordinary (common language) and art: golden hands and stars diamond thrill ).In everyday life already and scientific metaphors: ozone hole, the solar wind etc.The success of the speaker and the author of the text depends on what means of artistic expression used.

Variety trail similar to the metaphor - the embodiment, when the signs of the living entity are transferred to the objects, concepts and phenomena of nature: lay sleepy fog, autumn day pale and faded - personification of natural phenomena that happens very often, less often personifiedthe objective world - see. Ann's "Violin and Bow" Mayakovsky "Cloud in Trousers", Mamin-Siberian with his " good-natured and friendly countenance home " and more.Even in everyday life we ​​do not notice the avatars: unit said air cures, the economy has begun to move etc.It is unlikely that there is a better means of artistic expression, painting speech more colorful than impersonation.

Metonymy and synecdoche

in Greek means renaming metonymy, that is, the name is transferred from subject to subject, where the foundation - contiguity.It adorns the narrator use of artistic expression, in particular such as metonymy.Communication on the principle of adjacency may include the following:

  • content and content: eat three plates ;
  • authors and works: scolded Homer ;
  • action and his gun: doomed swords and fire ;
  • subject and material object: on gold tasted ;
  • place and actors: city rustled .

Metonymy complementary means of artistic expression of speech, with her added clarity, accuracy, imagery, visualization, and none epithet laconic.No wonder it is used and writers, and journalists, it is filled with spoken language all walks of life.

In turn, a kind of metonymy - synecdoche, in Greek - correlation, too, is based on replacing the sense of phenomena in the sense of the other, but only one principle - the proportion between the phenomena or objects.Wrap can be thus:

  • smaller to larger (him bird does not fly, the tiger does not go; drink a glass );
  • part of a whole ( Beard , that silent? Moscow not approve sanctions).

paraphrase or paraphrase

description or a descriptive sentence in Greek - turn, is used instead of words or combinations of words - it paraphrase .For example, Pushkin wrote "Peter's creation," and everyone knows what he meant Petersburg.It allows us to paraphrase the following:

  • indicate the main features of the subject that we represent;
  • avoid repetition (tautology);
  • vividly portrayed estimate;
  • add text sublime pathos, pathos.

paraphrase impermissible only in the business and formal style, but otherwise there are plenty.Colloquially often coexists with irony, merging together these two means of artistic expression.The Russian language is enriched by the confluence of different paths.

Hyperbole and litotes

figurative expression with excessive exaggeration of a characteristic or feature of an object, action or phenomenon - it is a hyperbole (Greek translates as an exaggeration).Litotes - on the contrary, is an understatement.

Thoughts is attached to the unusual shape, vivid emotional coloring, the credibility of the assessment.Especially good help to create comical images.Used in journalism as an essential means of artistic expression.The literature without these tropes too, can not do: rare bird Gogol will fly only to the middle of the Dnieper ;tiny ladybugs Krylov and like a lot of in almost every work of any author.

irony and sarcasm

In Greek this word denotes a sham that is consistent with the use of the trail.What are the means of artistic expression need to ridicule?The statement should be the opposite of its intended meaning when it is a positive assessment conceals mockery: clever head - an appeal to the donkey in the fable Krylov example." Unsinkable hero " - the irony used in the framework of journalism, which often put quotation marks or brackets.Tools for creating artistic expression it does not end there.How ironic in the extreme - angry, sarcastic - quite often used sarcasm: the contrast between the express and implied, as well as the deliberate exposure of implied.Mercilessly, exposing sharp - his handwriting: I usually argue about the taste of oysters and coconuts only with those who ate them (Zhvanetskiy).Algorithm sarcasm is a chain of actions: a negative phenomenon generate anger and resentment, then comes the reaction - the last degree of emotional openness: fed pigs terrible hungry wolves .However, you need to use sarcasm as gently as possible.And it is not often, if the author is not a professional satirist.Media sarcasm often consider themselves smarter than others.However, none of the satirist did not work to get the output of love.She and her appearance always depend on what means of artistic expression used in evaluating text.Sarcasm - a devastatingly powerful weapon.

non-secure means of language vocabulary

Give subtlest emotional nuances of speech and expression help synonymous.For example, you can use the word "race" instead of "run" for greater expressive power.And not just for her:

  • clarifying the thought and the transfer of the finest shades of meaning;
  • score portrayed and the author's attitude;
  • intense increase in the expression;
  • deep disclosure of the image.

also a good means of expression are antonyms.They clarify the idea, playing on contrasts, more fully characterize a certain phenomenon: glossy flood of waste paper and a truly fiction - brook .From antonyms it occurs widely demanded literary technique - the antithesis.

Many writers, and just note-wits like to play with words, coinciding in sound and even writing, but have different values: tough guy and cool boiled water, as well as steep bank;Flour and flour;Three Entries and three spot carefully.And the anecdote: Play boss?Here it is, thank you ... and fired.It homonyms, homophones and homographs.

words similar in spelling and sound, but have completely different meanings, too, are often used as puns and have sufficient expressive power in the deft use. History - hysteria ; master - millimeter etc.

should be noted that these are not the main means of artistic expression, as synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms Paronyms, official and business style are not used.


Otherwise - an idiom that is ready phraseologically expression also added a speaker or writer eloquence.Mythological imagery, high or spoken with expressive evaluation - positive or negative ( underling and apple of the eye, neck soap and sword of Damocles ) - all this strengthens and decorates vividly imaginative text.Salt phraseology - a special group - aphorisms.The deepest thoughts in the shortest version.It is easy to remember.Often used as other means of expression, in a literary text.This may also include proverbs and sayings.