In Russian dash used quite often.This sign can be considered quite "free", at least for the reason that his field of copyright use in literary language is quite extensive, especially in poetry.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that the use of dashes in conjunctionless complex sentence refers to the difficult cases punctuation.Consider the most typical of them.
1. The most common case is the statement of a dash in front of the index word is .This punctuation mark there is a kind of graphic sketches pause preceding description, explanation, complement the characterization of something or someone.
- Advertising, he said - it is something that can be the beginning of the development of our business.
- liberals - those who advocate the destruction of public foundations.Conservatives - those who protect order.(by G. Marquez)
Recall that complex sentence consists of two offerings that are relevant to the semantic relation to each other.In the role of a certain semantic parts cords can act conjunctions.Depending on the semantic load structure, they can be combined, to oppose, to express doubts, etc.
2. If the proposal no unions, the relationship between them expressed a particular intonation, pauses, that is, in fact, non-verbal elements of the binding.Tyre in conjunctionless complex sentence is a kind of substitute for such words, performing the function of non-verbal.
Consider an example where this is used instead of the punctuation mark adversative Union but or and (last sentence)
- Days, weeks - no one brought any news.(but)
- As others remember the past, so he has a presentiment, or rather, too, remembers the future - if takes away the veils, one after the other ... (but)
- All silenced by the fire and listen - was not heardno sound.(but)
- Everyone expected that Sergei act - he remained stubbornly silent. (and or but)
3. conjunctionless complex sentences, as exemplified below, illustrate the causal link between the logical units that expressed by the words: is why, then, so .
In these examples, the role of a substitute for these phrases is given a dash.
- There was no point in waiting for the arrival Sergeeva - chairman started a meeting.(therefore)
- If you're hungry - die.(then)
- He noted that the conflict is brewing - hurried away to the side.(therefore)
4. Tyre in conjunctionless complex sentence can function komparativa, ie comparison ( seemed as if ):
- fell silent - a mouthful of water gained.(saying)
- A hat so red - mushroom mushroom!
Finally, touch occurrences emphatic dash conjunctionless complex sentence.
Such punctuation is used to give a special speech, expression, vivid emotional coloring.According to the characteristics shown in the study of creativity M.Tsvetaeva American professor Michael Makin, use emphatic dash conveys the depth and range of feelings of the author, setting the invisible link with the reader.
But if the authors of poetry can afford individual creative approach to the use of punctuation marks, the hyphen in the official statement of writing, reports, when writing articles is obliged to rely on established rules set forth in the special areas of philological textbooks.