What were the first computers

The history of humanity is inextricably linked with scientific and technical development.The accumulation of knowledge, the creation of various mechanisms, devices and systems as stimulating ideas used constantly striving to facilitate the hard physical and routine human labor.

Warning inquiring minds of inventors are not spared the problem of facilitating the complex mathematical calculations.If we consider the term "computer" in its original form (Eng. «Computer» - «calculator"), the search for the sources of its origin should be in ancient times.Not so surprising when one recalls the first computers, citing abacus of ancient Babylon (3000 BC), Chinese suanpan (500 BC) and Greek astronomical calculator, working with gears, itMore is known as the "Antikythera Mechanism" (87 BC).

Continuing the list of various countable mechanical devices, not to mention the 13-bit adder Leonardo da Vinci (1492), Russian ten-digit abacus sixteenth century, "few hours" Wilhelm Schickard (1623) and other wonders of technology at the time.

particularly noteworthy invention of Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801.He was able to learn to work the loom of a program recorded on a set of punched cards.With the advent of this miracle of technology mechanical device right up close to the modern definition of a computer as a device that is capable of accurately predetermined sequence of operations, working on the program.

Although mechanical computing devices are fully manifested all the basic elements of the definition of a computer, of course, we are interested in the first computers using electronic advances.Then they were in our country called a computer, and in the world they are known as the first-generation computers.

E lamp has become a major constituent element for the creation of full-fledged electronic systems.The first computers that were created in the middle of the last century, were extremely cumbersome, costly and energy efficient.All attempts to create a complete electronic computer laboratories on the enthusiasm came to an end only the advent of experimental development, which played an important role in preparing the theoretical platform for the future of the computer boom.

It so happened that the only area of ​​production, which is not considered to any cost of its development - it's military-industrial sector.Obviously, for this reason, the first computers at once "put epaulets."

In early 1943, for the needs of the US Navy was created, and was successfully tested an electronic machine Mark I, it was created for the production of complex ballistic calculations.And at the end of the same year the British Colossus computer, special purpose began to decipher the German secret reports.We can say that the first computer in the world played an important role in the defeat of Nazi Germany.

Later in 1944 there was a fast car Z4, Konrad Zuse its creator not only perfected the instrument, but also became the first developer of high-level programming language plankalkül.

in 1946 on the basis of existing knowledge and development, there was the first mainframe ENIAC.Creating the first domestic computer was delayed until 1950.Only ten years after the successful development of our Western colleagues artist Lebedev, who worked in Kiev, I built the first Soviet electronic computers.