Ductility of copper.

malleability called susceptibility of metals and alloys for forging and other forms of pressure treatment.This can be a drawing, stamping, rolling or pressing.Malleability copper characterized not only the deformation resistance, but also moldability.What is plasticity?This ability to change their metal contours of pressure without breaking.Ductile metals are brass, steel, anodized aluminum and some other copper, magnesium, nickel, aluminum alloys.That is they have a high level of ductility combined with a low deformation resistance.


Interestingly, it looks like characteristic of copper?It is known that an element of Group 11 4 periods of chemical elements of Mendeleev.Its atom has 29 rooms and is denoted by Cu.In fact, it is a transition metal Plastic pink and golden brown.By the way, he has a pink color, if the oxide film is absent.For a long time the element is used by people.


One of the first metals that people began to actively use in its economy, is copper.Indeed, it too is available for receipt from the ore and has a low melting point.It has long been known to mankind Seven metals, which also includes copper.In nature, this element is more common than silver, gold or iron.Ancient objects from copper slag, are evidence of its smelting of ores.They were found during the excavation of the village of Çatalhöyük.It is known that in the Copper Age have received widespread copper things.In world history, he follows the stone.

SA Semenov with employees conducted experimental studies that found that copper tools in comparison with stone benefit in many ways.They have a higher speed planing, drilling, cutting and sawing wood.A copper processing bone knife lasts as much as, and stone.But copper is considered a soft metal.

Very often, in ancient times it was used instead of copper alloy with tin - bronze.It was necessary for the manufacture of weapons and other things.So, replace the Copper Age came the bronze.Bronze first received in the Middle East for 3000 years BC.e .: people like strength and an excellent ductility of copper.From the resulting bronze went great and hunting tools, utensils, decorations.All of these items are found in archaeological excavations.Next Bronze Age gave way to iron.

How to get copper could in ancient times?Initially, it is not extracted from sulfide and from malachite ore.Indeed, in this case, engaged in preliminary firing was not necessary.To do this, a mixture of coal and ore was placed in a clay pot.The vessel is installed in a shallow pit and the mixture is ignited.Then it starts to produce carbon monoxide, which contributed to the restoration of malachite free copper.

known that Cyprus is already in the third millennium BC were built copper mines, in which it was carried out and smelting.

The lands of Russia and neighboring states copper mines appeared two thousand years BC.e.Their ruins are in the Urals, and Ukraine, and the Caucasus and the Altai, and in the distant Siberia.

Industrial smelting of copper was utilized in the thirteenth century.And in the fifteenth was established in Moscow Cannon Yard.It was there that cast bronze guns of different calibers.The incredible amount of copper was spent on the production of bells.In 1586 was cast in bronze Tsar Cannon in 1735 - Tsar Bell in 1782 was created by the Bronze Horseman.At 752, the master produced a magnificent statue of the Great Buddha in the temple of Todai-ji Temple.In general, the list of works of art foundry is endless.

In the eighteenth century people discovered electricity.It was then that huge amounts of copper started to leave for the manufacture of wires and similar products.In the twentieth century, wires have learned to make aluminum, but copper in electrical engineering still had great significance.

origin of the name

Did you know that Cuprum - is the Latin name of copper, derived from the name of the island of Cyprus?By the way, Strabo copper styled halkosom - the city Halkida on Euboea guilty origin of the name.Most of the ancient Greek names of copper and bronze objects have taken place it is from this word.They are widely used in blacksmithing, among forging and casting products.Sometimes referred to as copper Aes, which means ore or mine.

Slavic word "copper" has a pronounced etymology.Perhaps it is old.But it is very often found in the most ancient monuments of Russian literature.VIAbaev suggested that the word comes from the name of the country of Media.Alchemists called copper "Venus."In earlier times it was called "Mars".

Where is the copper in nature?

crust holds (4,7-5,5) x 10-3% copper (by weight).The river and sea water, it is much smaller: 10.7%, and 3 x 10-7% (by weight), respectively.

in nature very often find copper compounds.The industry uses chalcopyrite CuFeS2, referred to as copper pyrite, bornite Cu5FeS4, chalcocite Cu2S.At the same time people are finding and other minerals copper cuprite Cu2O, Azurite Cu3 (CO3) 2 (OH) 2, malachite Cu2CO3 (OH) 2 and covellite CuS.Very often, the mass of individual clusters of copper reaches 400 tons.Copper sulphides are formed mainly in the medium-temperature hydrothermal veins.Often in sedimentary rocks can find copper deposits - shale and copper sandstones.The most known deposits are in the Trans-Baikal Territory Udokan Zhezkazgan in Kazakhstan, Mansfeld in Germany and nectariferous belt of Central Africa.Other rich copper deposit located in Chile (Escondida and Kolyausi) and the US (Morensi).

Most copper ore is mined by open method.It contains from 0.3 to 1.0% copper.

physical properties

Many readers are interested in the description of the copper.It is a plastic pink and golden metal.In air, the surface is covered with oxide film immediately, which gives it a kind of intense reddish-yellow tint.Interestingly, the thin film of copper have a bluish-green color.

Osmium, cesium, copper and gold in color are the same color, different from the other gray or silver metal.This color tone indicates the presence of electron transitions between the fourth half-empty and filled with a third atomic orbitals.Between them there is some energy gap corresponding to a wavelength of orange.The same system is responsible for the specific color of gold.

What is more amazing characteristic of copper?This metal forms a face-centered cubic lattice, space group Fm3m, a = 0,36150 nm, Z = 4.

A more famous copper high electrical and thermal conductivity.By holding the current, it is among the metals in second place.Incidentally, copper has a temperature coefficient of resistance of the giant and a wide temperature range is almost independent of its performance.Copper is called diamagnetic.

copper alloys are varied.People have learned to connect and brass with zinc, and nickel with nickel silver, and lead to the babbitt and bronze with tin and other metals.

copper isotopes

Copper consists of two stable isotopes - 63Cu and 65Cu, which have a prevalence of 69.1 and 30.9 percent, respectively, atomic.Generally, there are more than two dozen isotopes without stability.The most long-lived isotope 67Cu with a half-life of 62 hours.

How to get copper?

Production of copper is a very interesting process.This metal is produced from minerals or copper ores.The basic methods of preparation are copper hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy and electrolysis.

Consider pyrometallurgical method.By this method, the copper from sulfidic ores, such as chalcopyrite CuFeS2.The chalcopyrite materials is 0,5-2,0% Cu.First, the original ore is flotation.Then, the oxidizing roasting it at a temperature of 1400 degrees.Next Burnt concentrate goes into the smelting matte.For binding the iron oxide in the melt is added silica.

resulting silicate surfaces in the form of slag and separated.At the bottom of the matte remains - an alloy of sulphides CU2S and FeS.Further, it is melted by the method of Henry Bessemer.For this converter, the molten matte is poured.Then the container is purged with oxygen.And the iron sulfide that was oxidized to oxide, and with the help of silica removed from the process in the form of silicate.Oxidized copper sulfide to copper oxide incomplete, but then reduced to metallic copper.

in getting the blister copper contained 90.95% of the metal.Next, it is subjected to electrolytic cleaning.Interestingly, the electrolyte is an acidic solution of copper sulphate.

formed on the cathode electrolytic copper which has a high frequency of about 99.99%.Objects made of copper produced very different: wires, electrical equipment, alloys.

hydrometallurgical method is somewhat different.There copper minerals divorced dissolved in sulfuric acid or ammoniacal solution.From prepared liquids displace copper iron metal.

chemical properties of copper

In the compounds of copper shows two oxidation states +1 and +2.The first of these tends to disproportionation and stable only in the insoluble compounds or complexes.Incidentally, the copper compounds are colorless.

+2 oxidation state is more stable.That it gives the salt blue and cyan.In unusual conditions can be prepared compounds in the oxidation state 3 or even 5.The latter are usually found in the salts kupraboranovogo anion obtained in 1994.

Pure copper in the air does not change.This is a weak reducing agent does not react with dilute hydrochloric acid and water.Oxidized with concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids, halogens, oxygen, "aqua regia", nonmetallic oxides, chalcogens.When heated, it reacts with hydrogen halides.

If the air is humid, copper is oxidized, forming a basic copper carbonate (II).It reacts perfectly with hot and cold saturated sulfuric acid, anhydrous hot sulfuric acid.

with dilute hydrochloric acid copper reacts in the presence of oxygen.

Analytical chemistry copper

all know what the chemistry.Copper solution is easy to find.To do this, a platinum wire to moisten the test solution, and then make it into the flame of a Bunsen burner.If copper is present in the solution, the flame will be colored in green-blue color.You need to know that:

  • Typically, the amount of copper in the weakly acidic solution was measured using the hydrogen sulfide: it is mixed with the substance.As a rule, this copper sulfide precipitates.
  • In those solutions, where there are no interfering ions, copper is determined complexometric, potentiometric or potentiometrically.
  • Small amounts of copper in the solution is measured by spectral and kinetic methods.

use of copper

Agree study copper is very entertaining thing.Thus, the active metal has low resistivity.Owing to this quality of copper used for the production of electrical power and other cables, wires and other conductors.The copper wire used in the windings of the power transformers and electric.To create the aforementioned metal products picked very clean, as impurities to instantly reduce electrical conductivity.And if the copper is present in 0.02% of aluminum, its electrical conductivity will decrease by 10%.

Another useful feature is the splendid thermal conductivity of copper.Due to this property it is used in a variety of heat exchangers, heat pipes, teplootvodnyh devices and computer coolers.

Where is the hardness of the copper used?It is known that seamless copper pipes have excellent mechanical strength.They are well withstand mechanical handling and are used to move liquids and gases.Usually they can be found in the internal systems of gas supply, water supply, heating.They are widely used in refrigeration units and air conditioning systems.

Excellent hardness of copper is known in many countries.Thus, in France, the UK and Australia, the copper pipes used for gas supply of buildings in Sweden - for heating in the US, UK and Hong Kong - is the main material for the water supply.

In Russia, production of water and gas copper tubes normalized GOST R 52318-2005 and the Federal Code of Practice SP 40-108-2004 regulates their use.Pipes made of copper and its alloys are widely used in energy and shipbuilding to move the vapors and liquids.

Did you know that copper alloys are used in various fields of technology?Of these, the most famous are considered to be bronze and brass.Both alloys include enormous family of materials, which, besides zinc and tin, may include bismuth, nickel and other metals.For example, gunmetal, used until the nineteenth century for the manufacture of artillery, consisting of copper, tin and zinc.Its formulation varied depending on the location and time of production tools.

Everyone knows the excellent processability and high ductility of copper.Due to these properties, the incredible amount of brass leaves for the production of sleeves for arms and artillery ammunition.It is noteworthy that auto parts made of copper alloy with silicon, zinc, tin, aluminum and other materials.Copper alloys have high strength and thermal processing retain their mechanical properties.Their wear resistance is determined only by the chemical composition and its influence on the structure.It should be noted that this rule does not apply to some beryllium bronze and aluminum bronze.

Copper alloys have a modulus of elasticity lower than that of steel.Their main advantages include low friction coefficient, combined for most alloys with high ductility, excellent electrical conductivity and excellent corrosion resistance in a corrosive environment.Typically, this aluminum bronzes and copper-nickel alloys.They are, incidentally, found application in pairs of sliding.

Almost all copper alloys have the same coefficient of friction.However, the wear resistance and mechanical properties, the behavior in hostile environments are directly dependent on the alloy composition.Plasticity of copper used in single-phase alloys, and strength - in two phases.Melchior (coppernickel alloy) is used for minting small coins.Copper-nickel alloys, including "admiralty", used in shipbuilding.Of these tubes are manufactured capacitors, cleaning turbine exhaust steam.It is noteworthy that the turbines are cooled by seawater.Copper-nickel alloys have an amazing corrosion resistance, so they tend to use in areas related to the aggressive influence of the sea water.

fact, copper is an essential component of solid solders - alloys having a melting point of 590 to 880 degrees Celsius.It is inherent in them a great adhesion to most metals, so that they apply for permanent connection of various metal parts.These may be pipe fittings or fluid jet engines, made of dissimilar metals.

Now list the alloys in which copper ductility is important.Or duralumin Duralumin is an alloy of aluminum and copper.Here, copper is 4.4%.Alloys of copper and gold is often used in jewelry.They are necessary to improve the strength of the products.Because pure gold - a very soft metal, which can be resistant to mechanical stress.Products made of pure gold, and wear out quickly deformed.

Interestingly, for the creation of yttrium oxide-barium-copper oxide is used copper.It serves as a basis for the manufacture of high-temperature superconductors.Copper is also used for the production of batteries and copper-oxide electrochemical cells.Other


Did you know that copper is very often used as a catalyst for the polymerization of acetylene?Due to this property, copper pipes are used to move the acetylene is allowed to be used only when the copper content does not exceed 64%.