in a school course of Russian language study words for the state.Students often confuse them with the adverbs and adjectives, though they have differences.
Category status - words, morphological features which allow to classify them as adverbs, because they respond to the question "what?"and how?"and are intended to describe the emotions or mood of animate objects or physical processes associated with inanimate objects and their environment or location.For example: The house was restless .
But not so long ago impersonal predicatives or predicates - another name for that category are the words of the state - some linguists began to consider an independent part of speech.But while there is no unanimity among scholars on the issue of criteria for belonging to her.Word of its components, grammatically uniform.Sometimes it include short forms of adjectives, in full form is not used.For example: shall must, glad, etc.
Category condition expressed by the words that are most often in the principal terms of impersonal sentences and take an independent position.They represent a static situation and are homonyms, so they are difficult to distinguish from adverbs and short forms of adjectives.For example:
1. He calmly at heart (condition category);
2. calmly and smoothly flowing river (adverb);
3. Animal quietly (short adjective).
Category condition has the following distinguishing features: first, calls the mood or emotion of the living entity, and describes the environment.Secondly, part of the name is often the predicate in the impersonal sentence with no subject.For example:
1. In the shadow cool and damp .
(state of the environment: the cool, damp, light, heat, etc.)
2. He hurt
(physiological sensations of living beings: heard, not seen, painful, cramped and stuffy, and so on.d.)
3. Ah!As happily !
(emotional state of man: a shame, joy, terrible, a shame and a pity, etc.)
4. Sin not see it!
(modal categories: sin, you can not, you can, etc.)
5. Get up early .
(spatial and temporal characteristics: late, early, far, close, high).
If the condition category (see examples below) describes the animate objects, their names pronounced form dative.If - the environment, then its name is often presented in the form of prepositional.For example:
1. One bad (one - DP, the name of the person).
2. summer in the park shady and cool (in the park - Paras, the name of the object of the natural environment).
have predicates have permanent and non-morphological features.Standing category is its immutability.A fickle - a degree of comparison with those words that were formed from qualitative adjectives.For example:
On the south side warmer .
syntactic role of words is limited to the category of state predicate in mononuclear impersonal sentences.
1. Although it is difficult to , but to go forward!
2. How quiet around!
Often, predicates are used together with the words "will" and "no", "become" and "would," "will" and "there", etc.For example:
1. But was quiet.
2. Sometimes and noisy.
In order to properly determine the lexical unit belongs to the category of the state, the student must be familiar with the rules and practice, doing the exercises.At the same time, not to be confused with its own language and concise adjective need to make out the words on the morphological analysis of the scheme, indicating syntactic role in the sentence.