Mathematics in kindergarten is not just counting to ten and back.Lesson of mathematics in the preparatory group involves the development of mathematical and logical abilities of each child.In the future, this database skills will be fundamental in school education, which is important not only to believe but also to build a cause-and-effect relationships.Therefore, in the Dow on math classes more attention is paid to logical puzzles.
What logical ways of thinking involves mathematics?
For the preparatory group session should be built in such a way as to develop a child's logical methods or mental operations: synthesis, classification, abstraction, analogy, seriation, generalization, comparison, construction analysis.
Challenges for analyzing forced the child to allocate a single object from a group of subjects.For example, to find fruit, vegetables, or collect only sour fruit.A child needs to analyze the properties of each object and select one or more specific conditions.
tasks require the synthesis of compounds of different features into a single unit.For example, the traditional occupation of mathematics in the preparatory group to synthesize - a search for goals of all things, then you need to select only the red balls, then - not only to gather balls in red.Targets for the development of analysis and synthesis are similar.
exercises seriation require alignment of the child rows in ascending or descending lines.If the younger group such tasks involve the construction of the pyramids, Christmas trees or dolls, the preparatory group of children can work with numbers, shapes, sticks.
Compare, construction, classification, generalization
Particular attention is paid to the development of comparative skills that the child can identify similar and different features of each object.The preparatory group it may be a problem in the selection of items 2-3 or search features numerous descriptive adjectives of any object (watermelon-sun, ribbon snake).
on designing lesson in mathematics in the preparatory group also carried out at least 2 times a week.Every time the children get the job with complicated conditions.For example, in the first session following the example of the children did the teacher, the second task - from memory, for the third time - a drawing, and the last stage is given general verbal job "Lay down your cat."
Classification and generalization of essentially similar, the analysis and synthesis.Only in the first case to be divided into groups of items, and the generalization to find similar symptoms in subjects.For example, according to the classification tasks include search for items by name, shape, size, color, or on several grounds (the red button in the round container and green beads in a square box).At the same time the teacher can call the difference between things or give the job indefinitely, "found that the similarities between objects," or "Share the triangle into two groups," and the child is looking for signs of himself.
Many preschoolers perform any activity in mathematics at the preparatory group on the fine, but can not generalize the result of the work done.Therefore it is important after each job to ask, "Why is this item in this group, but not in the same"?Such questions help the development of a causal relationship, the child learn to talk, to build logical reasoning.
By what mathematical knowledge should master the older preschoolers?
- Children should count to ten and back with any figures.
- Doshkolyata should know how to look the numbers from zero to ten.
- Within ten children should quickly be called "neighbors" of any number.
- Kids need to understand the meaning of signs: plus, minus, more, less, the same.
- Children should compare the numbers in the range of 10 (whichever is greater, less, the same).
- Preschoolers need to find geometric shapes: triangle, rectangle, square, circle.
- Children need to relate image (number of items) with the number.
- Children should be grouped subjects for a particular trait.
- Children must compare objects by size, color, shape.
- Children must solve puzzles in a single action on the subtraction and addition.
- Children need to understand terms such as "later", "ahead", "right", "up", "left", "down", "before", "between", "for" and so on. D.
it's about math Zun, which must master preschoolers.In each pre-school has its own program, which determines what will be the math.Preparatory Group (summaries of lessons are written in detail) requires more demonstration material and interesting logic problems.
children to solve interesting examples on subtraction and addition.They need to save the fairy tale characters, solving puzzles villains.Therefore, the teacher should carefully prepare for the lesson by writing software maintenance, preliminary work, instructional techniques, demonstration and handouts, the structure and course of studies with a direct speech and possible answers children.