The composition of the soil

Soil classification is based on the principle of considering the soil as an independent special body of nature, which can be put on a par with minerals, animals and plants.This method of classification is based on the properties and on the characteristics of soil origin.The first section of the soil on the genetic basis of Dokuchaev

main ground on which the division takes place - this is the type of soil.This means the soil classification unit arising under the same conditions and having similar properties and structure.

Among the most famous we can distinguish the following types of soils: podzol, krasnozems, black soil, salt marshes, and others.Soil types are divided further into subtypes on the delivery, species and varieties and categories.

subtypes reflect the distinctive features of the soil profile.It plays a role as a continental climate and thermal conditions of the latitude zone.Subtypes are intermediate between types.

Further separation occurs genera and species of soil.The most common genera of soil: conventional, alkaline, residual-solonetz, saline, quartz sand and a contact-gley, residual carbonate, residual-arid.

every kind of soil has an additional division into types.View reflects how pronounced the process of soil formation, characteristic for a particular soil type.In turn, among the species identified a number of varieties.It is related to one type of soil, which is only a difference of texture.These include clay and loam, sandy and sandy loam.Dividing the ranks means that the soil has the same look and texture, but the parent rock have different origins.

Various properties are directly dependent on what the texture of the soil.

This quantity is defined by soil particles of different size, and is expressed as a percentage.Cartilage, pebbles and stones are poor permeability to water to form from the debris of rocks and virgin materials.Sand has the property of rapidly flowing water, as almost a member of one of the primary minerals.The dust contains secondary minerals, swelling from water - this phenomenon causes such soil properties as stickiness and plasticity.The soil composition of the sludge includes secondary minerals from clay.They are very swollen in the water, then do not miss almost no water, no air.

If the particles are reduced in size, the process of weathering and subsequent formation of secondary minerals - is iron hydroxide, alumina, aluminum silicates and carbonates of Ca, K, Mg.

size mechanical components influences their chemical composition and physical properties.Therefore, knowing the composition of the soil, you can find out what properties it possesses.

upper soil horizons and soil-forming rocks it, depending on the mechanical structure, divided into:

  • Sandy:

- connected;

- loose.

  • sandy loam.
  • Clay:

- heavy;

- average;

- light.

  • Loamy:

- heavy;

- average;

- light.

different mechanical soil composition, wherein the content of physical clay affects such property is plasticity.With its various indicators, the land can roll into a ball, or in the cord.This helps to determine the texture of the soil in the field.Its name usually reflects its texture.For example, an ordinary black soil heavy-loamy.

agronomic properties of soils also depends on its mechanical structure.Easy to handle and sandy loam that is why they are called the lungs.Conversely, loamy and clayey deserved reputation for heavy because of the difficulties in agronomic treatment.However, they contain more batteries and humus, unlike sandy and sandy loam, and therefore considered to be more fertile.