Anyone who is interested in history of the Russian state, sooner or later have to deal with jokes, which today have become some of the decrees of Peter 1. From this article you will learn about the many unexpected actions of the king-reformer who turned social life end XVII -beginning of the XVIII centuries, as they say, upside down.
the decree of Peter 1 are studied in schools and universities.On some of them made fun of, the individual is perceived as the norm.But this is the current time.At the beginning of the XVIII century, these documents were for the majority of "blasphemy and diabolism."
Some decisions of the king, for example, the decree on primogeniture Peter 1, led to intrigues.Others have influenced fashion, economy and army.Doubtless there is only one king rigid methods trying to update a stagnant society of his time.
One of the most significant in the history of the state was the decree on primogeniture Peter 1. He was released in 1722.Document changes all the foundations of power.Now I was not the heir to the eldest in the family, and the one who will appoint his successor emperor.
This decree of Peter 1 on the succession was abolished only by the Emperor Paul I in 1797.Before that, he served as the basis for many of palace coups, murder and intrigue.While Peter was originally conceived as a preventive measure against the conservative mood of people who are dissatisfied with the reforms.
propose to consider the most popular orders of Peter 1. Perhaps the most famous today are the two laws: the celebration of the new year and a beard.On the second will be discussed later.As to the first decree, according to the will of the king, since 1700, Russia's chronology passed in the European manner.
That is not now the year began in September, and the first of January.Chronology is conducted from the birth of Christ, and not from the creation of the world as it was before.Thus, instead of the fourth month of the year 7208, it was the first in 1700.
Probably the most famous innovation Russian tsar after his return from Europe for fashion on beards.Next will be given many orders of Peter 1, funny and serious.But none of them has caused such indignation among the boyars, like this one.
So, in twenty-six aged emperor gathered at the representatives of noble families, took the scissors and cut some of these beards.These actions plunged society into shock.
But the young king did not stop there.He imposed a tax on beards.Anyone who wanted to keep the facial hair, had to pay a certain amount each year to the treasury.
So to know it was six hundred rubles a year for merchants - a hundred, sixty townsmen treated, and the servants and others - thirty.It should be noted that these were very serious sum for those times.From this annual tax exempt only farmers, but at the entrance to the city and they had to pay a penny to his beard.Questions
Many decrees Peter 1 for public life.With their help, the king tried to give the Russian nobility European appearance.
First, spending significant funds for the construction of St. Petersburg, the emperor attended the service time wooden bridge.Therefore, it issued a ban on metallic heels heels.For their establishment fined, and sale - hard labor and confiscation of property.
next point concerns the army.Since Peter the Great seriously engaged in its renewal and improvement, the attention paid to every detail literally.So a decree was issued on the "buttons sewn on to the front of the soldier's uniform."This measure was to extend the life of the breech clothes, as to wipe your mouth sleeves became impossible.
also introduced in the cities of European fashion.The Emperor ordered all to replace traditional long dress short suits "Hungarian style".
And finally, noble ladies punished monitor the freshness of linen in order "not to embarrass foreign masters filthy scents, perfumes to break through."
On the construction and quality of
One of the most famous is the decree of Peter 1 on the quality.It is not as popular as many ridiculous laws passed by the king, but with the help of the Russian army was able to win the Battle of Poltava.
So to find that gun from Tula plant are not very good quality, the emperor ordered the owner and responsible for the arrest of manufactured products.Then, they were destined to punishment in the form of slaughter whips and departure into exile.Peter the Great decided to closely monitor the quality of manufactured goods at the factory.To check he sent to Tula Arms entire order.For any marriage is supposed to punish with rods.In addition, the new owner, Demidov, the king commanded to build a hut for all workers, as the owner.
No less interesting is the decree of Peter 1 on the construction.When the king intends to begin construction of St. Petersburg, it is forbidden to build across the country stone house.Therefore, all the experts brought together to work towards the Neva.
Thus, the emperor as soon as possible was able to build the city.
One of the most famous anecdotes is today a decree of Peter 1 on the slave.In fact, its existence has not been proven, but today it is called, on everyone's lips.We'll talk about it at the end.
Now we are not talking about the famous "ridiculous decree of Peter," but the really important things.So the king in war with Sweden in dire need of qualified officers.Therefore, it was decided to grant foreigners promising positions in the Russian army.So, all the European soldiers in the higher ranks, experienced commanders were invited to our country at a salary twice the earnings of local officers.
first wave of "migrant workers" was, according to his contemporaries of Peter, "rabble of rogues."Thus, foreign officers in the first month of service surrendered to the Swedes.But failure did not discourage the emperor, and in the end, he reached the goal.The Russian army was trained and rearmed.
By the way, with regard to modernization, that is, evidence of melting of the church bells in the gun after the "embarrassment at Narva".It is noteworthy here that the Emperor has shown generosity.So, the church property, he is not withdrawn, and took in rent.After the victory at Poltava Swedish king from captured guns ordered to cast the bells and bring them back into place.
1 Introducing Peter the Great and economic innovation.We look at three of the decree, which largely shaken the foundations of the traditional Russian.
So, according to the first decision, the state introduced "opposition promises and bribes."For similar offenses assumed to capital punishment.To prevent the causes pushing officials to commit a crime, the emperor raised the salaries of civil servants.But it was forbidden "any bribery, trade, contract and promises."
In those days in Russia was extended medical practice of people, quite distant from even the basics of the craft.Therefore, one of the law prohibits "the exercise of the pharmaceutical and medical practice to all persons that are not on the right."
The last fact is a joke rather than the truth.So, to have survived the following quote of the king: "Collection of taxes - thieves matter.They are not paid a salary, but once a year to hang one to another was not povadno. "
measures for improvement
Emperor Peter the Great 1, after returning from a trip to Western Europe, serious thought is called to restore order in the Russian Empire.In addition to many other issues were raised and issues of cleanliness, fire protection and improvement.
First, a law was passed "On cleanliness in Moscow."He punished all residents to follow the rubbish on the streets and in the courts."If any of it, to take out of town and buried in the ground."If you notice uncleared waste from your yard, be fined or flogged with rods.
second decree relate exclusively to shipbuilding and fleet.According to him, the repair of ships and life on them, all waste shall be removed.If at least one shovel debris to fall into the water to punish.For the first offense, it was in the amount of one month's salary, and for the second - half-year.During the third shovel garbage into the river, officers demoted to the ranks and ordinary sailors were exiled to Siberia.
was also adopted a decree on fire safety.It instructed homeowners to convert all of the oven, setting them in stone foundations.Also, between the wall and ordered to make a masonry stove, pipe and hold those in which "people prolazit."Clean similar design had to be once a month.For non-observance of the norms imposed fines.
Corresponding time and different sectors of society, the text is 1 Peter often concern about the treatment of alcoholic beverages.Particularly those provisions concerning the army and navy.
On the Assembly recommended that drinking to the extent that "his snoring Teleses" not to embarrass the newly arrived guests who do not have time to "muster up condition lying nearby, and other masters."
If we talk about the Navy, there were several decrees.
Firstly, being abroad, it is forbidden to everyone - from sailor to admiral "vusmert revel, so as not to disgrace the honor of the fleet and the state."
Secondly, should not have been allowed into pubs navigators, as they "spawn boorish, recruit and organize a riot."
law was also in the Navy, which is sometimes used today.So, if the man walking on the beach, drunk until he lost consciousness, but he was found lying with his head in the direction of the ship, in which case it is hardly punished, "I have not come down, but tried to back."
Also it since Peter the Great in our country has become a tradition to celebrate May Day.It was borrowed from the peoples of Europe.So, this holiday was celebrated as a day of spring the Germans and Scandinavians.Celebrations were held in Moscow, put on the table for all passers-by.Part in the festivities are not averse to the Emperor himself, urging people to join.
Rules on assemblies
Besides innovations in the army, chronology and other areas of life, the emperor cared about raising the general culture of the population.Despite the fact that the king tried to do everything as best today, like its rulings often cause a smile.
So, consider the unusual order of Peter 1. Funny today, they were truly revolutionary in the eighteenth century.
Among other most popular decree on the rules of behavior at the people in the party and in the assemblies.Firstly, ought thoroughly wash and shave.Secondly, are half hungry and better sober.Third, do not stand there and take part in the festivities.It is also recommended to know in advance where the toilets in case anything happens.Fourth, it allowed to eat in moderation, but drinking - plenty.By the way, to the drunk in Russia had a special attitude.Those who lost consciousness from a large amount of alcohol, ought carefully folded separately, "so as not to fall to the case and do not interfere with dancing."Fifth, given the recommendations of dealing with the ladies, "so as not to obtain on Mordasov."
The last of the important instructions.It is known that there is no fun without a song, so it was necessary to settle the chorus, and "not Valaam donkey bray."
Nor, as the decree of the succession of Peter 1, this provision was necessary for the state.Due to continuing military campaign in the country is constantly needed finances for the army.Therefore, the emperor issued an order on holding homestead census.
But the measure did not give proper results.The landlords do not want to pay taxes, "who knows where", as the country is already tired of the constant war.Therefore, Peter Alexeyevich had to conduct a census on several occasions, as with each new number of households decreased.
previous census results were dated 1646 and 1678 years.The data is for 1710 decreased by twenty percent.Therefore, after another attempt by the decree to "take all the fairy tales, and to bring true (the period to year)" homestead tax was replaced by capitation.
funny smile cause of the king's decisions with respect to the authorities.For example, the decree of Peter 1 on the slave.According to him, "in the face of high-slave must be silly and dashing appearance, so as not to seem smarter."
addition, the senators were forbidden to read the speech.As a result, they had to speak in their own words, and was understood by the level of development of each.
No less interesting was the decree of Peter 1 on red.According to him, it was forbidden to take the service of people with defect (red hair then considered as such).This order is partly caused by the saying, "God is aiming Rogue."
As we mentioned earlier, Peter I in his decrees covering all sectors of society.So often it battered not only men, but ladies.Here is one example.Since ancient times in Russia pale skin was considered a sign of "blue blood."Therefore, great ladies black teeth for greater contrast.In addition, bad teeth showed prosperity.A lot of money - a lot of eating sugar.Therefore, the emperor ordered the ladies brushing teeth and chalk to whiten them.
Thus, in this article we are introduced to the decrees of one of the greatest rulers of Russia.Emperor Peter the Great was not just the head of the country, he Radel for improvement in various areas of public life.
Even despite the fact that today some of his edicts cause a smile, at the time they were revolutionary measures.