Unlike most countries in the world, the state emblem of the United States has two sides, like a coin.This symbol of the country is also called the Great Seal (Great Seal).It is used only to certify some documents approved by the government of this great power, such as the address of the President and the international treaties.Secretary of State of the United States is responsible for the storage of print.But she was not hidden from the public: see the valuable original can be anyone in Washington, in the exhibition hall of the State Department.The coat of arms emblazoned on the obverse of the US Great Seal.What is depicted on the reverse of the one who came up with these symbols of statehood, as well as the magic number 13, which is repeated several times in the emblem and flag of the country, see this article.
History Emblem US
On the very day when the July 4, 1776 was proclaimed the independence of the new state, to the Continental Congress fell the task to develop a national emblem, confirming sovereignty.Interestingly, the creators of the idea of the Great Seal were not artists, but far from the people of heraldry.But it was prominent, has made great efforts for the release of the thirteen states from the dictates of the United Kingdom.Three members of the Continental Congress - John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson - have developed their own projects.They tried to connect with the US Congress Secretary Charles Thomson.But it took six years and the involvement of the artist and heraldry Pierre Eugene du Simitera to connect together all the projects on paper and bring the state seal.
All three authors of the idea of the Great Seal draws its inspiration from the Bible.In particular, Benjamin Franklin drew a parallel between the release of the American people from the yoke of the history of the overseas exodus of Jews from Egypt.Coat the US version of the crowns motto "Rebellion against tyranny - in the will of God."Jefferson saw in the act of sovereignty of the people of Israel, led by Moses to the promised land.The reverse had to show two of the Saxon leader Hengist and Horsa, whose form of government adopted by Americans.Option J. Adams was perhaps the most erotic.The obverse showed off a naked Hercules, leaning on a club, and the reverse - lightly dressed Virtue, a decree on the road climbing and Sloth, offering to sit down on the lawn among the flowers.
But try as he might, Pierre Simiter creatively interpret and express ideas in a heraldic symbols of the Great Seal of the authors, its design was rejected by the Congress.In the second, the Committee to develop a new character entered the country Francis Hopkinson.He has already developed before the coat of arms of New Jersey, and began an emblem of statehood.It was thanks to him that the United States flag and the arms are decorated with thirteen red and white stripes with the same number of stars.Hopkinson also originated the idea of reversing the print unfinished pyramid and the eye of providence.However, the obverse, which was attended by two goddesses with an olive branch and arrows, did not like the Congress, so was created the Third Committee.
To work was to attract young, addictive heraldry lawyer William Barton.In just five days later he presented to the Congress a sketch of the Great Seal.The obverse showed off an eagle with spread wings, reverse remained almost the same as it drew the first committee.Congress was not too happy with the proposed coat of arms, but at the time there was no alteration: it was necessary to assure the important state documents under a contract with the UK and the exchange of prisoners.Therefore, the sketch was taken as a basis, and Charles Thompson was instructed to finalize it.This talented Secretary of the Congress and created the final version - the emblem of the United States, the photo you see in all the encyclopedias.Thompson took into account all the interesting ideas of the three Committees.He retained the magic number 13 - the number of states that have become the fundamental nucleus of the new state.They also kept an olive branch and arrows - symbols of peace, but ready for war.Only they have not held a goddess, and the claws of an eagle.This layout was approved June 20, 1782, and in September the Great Seal was placed on the document authorizes Washington to exchange prisoners.
So what's a bird on the coat of arms of the United States?
Barton decided that the eagle - too common heraldic symbol.He wanted the national symbol of the country showed a true American bird.Such was the bald eagle (Latin name Haliaeetus leucocephalus).Previously it was thought that this species of raptors found only in the Americas, but is now known that its representatives live in Russia, on Bering Island.Anecdotally, bird, which now adorns the coat of arms of the United States, could be ... turkey.It offered as a symbol of the country's Benjamin Franklin.And all because turkeys are often attacked by wearing the red uniforms of the British Grenadiers.However, the majority of Americans decided that these birds are widely considered symbols of swaggering and stupidity, and therefore opted for Orlan.
The number "13" appears in large print on the obverse and the reverse.By the way, the back side of this emblem of statehood can wish to consider taking advantage of the bill to $ 1.It depicts the unfinished pyramid of thirteen blocks with Eye of Providence.However, Thompson added the reverse side of the 13 letters of the slogan: «Annuit Coeptis», which means "God is gracious to our endeavors."Second Latin motto - Novus Ordo Seclorum - translated as "New Order of the Ages."Below the date - 1776. This year, symbolizing the beginning of the American state.Avers print - in fact, the coat of arms of the United States - is also replete with the number "13".The eagle's beak ribbon with the inscription «E Pluribus Unum» (with a magic number of letters).Red and white stripes on the shield, the stars in the cloud over the bird's head, arrows in the left leg, leaves and olives on the branch on the right - all that displays and celebrates the 13 original states.The symbolism of flowers in the arms of traditional white - innocence, red - courage and vitality, blue - a sign of vigilance.