today without the use of a variety of polymers, perhaps, impossible to imagine any modern production.They have gained a dominant place in heavy industry and construction, and in the light and food industries.What is this miraculous material?
polymer - a macromolecular substance consisting of recurring chain structures (monomers).Such links in the polymer chain can be incredibly much.Their interaction with each other by means of covalent bonds, which contribute to the formation of macromolecules.
Polymers are organic or inorganic origin.The organic molecular compounds of carbon must be present, that is not essential to the inorganic or synthetic structures.Organic polymeric compounds are organoelement, long carbon and hetero.
addition polymers still divided on natural, artificial and synthetic.Wherein the organic monotsepey by certain chemical reactions prepared as artificial macromolecular compound.For example, cotton wool or a chemical process is converted into synthetic polymeric fibers.
And what features artificial synthetic polymers?Modern processes make it possible to artificially create or synthesize the polymers without the use of organic matter, that is, the formation of artificial materials.Synthetic polymers are prepared by simple synthesis of low molecular weight substances or from other synthetic polymeric substances.
Conditional systematization divides them into the following groups:
1. Natural animal polymers used by mankind for a long time.Examples include the following: gelatin, glycogen.
2. Natural plant polymers that are also familiar to us.This starch, rubber, cellulose and lignin.
3. Natural mineral polymers - is widely used silica or quartz mineral called rock crystal.Painted a crystal becomes a precious stone - amethyst.In powdered form it is converted in the usual sand.
4. Synthetic polymers made from organic monomers.From substance leaching pulp manufactured using polyesters: ethylcellulose benziltsellyuloza and methylcellulose used in the paint industry.Many of these substances are made of wool, leather, fur, silk, and so on. D.
5. Synthetic polymers are widely used in many industrial sectors, got a huge spread.For example, in light industry are woven and knitted fabrics of synthetic fibers such as polyester, nylon, polypropylene, nitrone.They are very durable and virtually indelible.Synthetic polymers that represent the basic structure of these fibers tissue, obtained by polycondensation of certain chemical substances acids such as ethylene diamine, hexamethylene diamine, polyolefin, or polyacrylonitrile.Therefore, the basic qualities polimerov- "ancestors" and transferred to a brand new polisoedineniyam.The result is very light and elastic materials with low thermal conductivity, are resistant to chemical, physical and weatherproof.
Thanks to the many valuable properties, synthetic polymers have found application not only in textiles, but also in medicine, cosmetics and perfume industry, agriculture, automotive, construction, household and other fields.