1917 for Russia was a very hard and responsible.Events unfolding in Petrograd, were of great importance for the further future of the country.Bread riots, demonstrations, rallies against military action, and as a result - was deposed Emperor Nicholas II, more precisely, he abdicated.So stop of the Romanov dynasty.It formed the first Provisional Government.He became its chairman Prince George Lvov.The Provisional Government gave Russian Declaration, according to which political prisoners receive amnesty, a reform of local government, but most importantly - a civil liberties.
This article will address the crises of the Provisional Government in 1917, the table for a better understanding of the material will also be presented.The fact is that, despite all their efforts, the new government could not cope with the discontent of the people.People were determined to change their lives, a process has been started, and just like that it was unstoppable.This subject is taught in history class students in the 9th grade, because they will be useful to explore and adults to refresh your memory of the events of those years.
all the action happens in the distant 1917.There were 3 of the crisis of the Provisional Government.Keep in mind that the cause of the crisis was the effect of the Bolshevik Party, and the government's refusal to address the pressing problems of society (social and agricultural).In general, it is difficult to figure in such a subject as the crisis of the Provisional Government, in 1917, the table will have an undeniable advantage in the realization of the material.Consider the good and bad moments in the policy of the Provisional Government - in the table below.
Table 9 on the history of the class: the crises of the Provisional Government.The policy of the new government.
|establishment of an exhaustive list of democratic freedoms|| |
Russia's participation in the war
|proclamation of the Republic|| |
|democratic electoral law|| |
Noelections to the Constituent Assembly
|Death penalty|| |
return of the death penalty
We see that the new government tried to change something, but it was not enough.
first crisis of the Provisional Government
April 18 note Foreign Minister (who was Miliukov) gave rise to the first crisis.The document referred to the need to be faithful allied commitments, but there was nothing said about annexations and indemnities.At that time, it appeared that a democratic Russia and its democratic government are predatory and imperialist war, although one and a half years as the war went on the territory of Russia.This was the main mistake of Milyukov.The Bolsheviks took advantage of it and provoked his thoughts and teachings of the masses for demonstrations.
March 22 in St. Petersburg, thousands of people took to the streets.There have been multiple demonstrations.The slogan of the first demonstrations was: "We support the Provisional Government!" Slogan second demonstration: "Down with Guchkov and Milyukov!", "Peace without annexations or indemnities!" And third, separate rally were the Bolsheviks with the slogan: "The power - the Soviets!" Allparticipants in demonstrations handed out ten rubles (very similar to the modern rallies), and later the Bolsheviks tried to claim that they were not responsible for the meetings, which were supposedly free expression of the masses.It is very sad that the demonstrations were armed clashes and even sacrifice.
In Russia there were difficult times.Members of the Provisional Government had several alternative ways out of the situation.
idea was resignation and the transfer of power to the Soviets.Most of the time the government felt that it was too dangerous because it can lead to civil war, and this simply can not be allowed.
This path has been proposed Kornilov.Under his plan, it was necessary to take advantage of the situation, using the Bolshevik slogan "Down with the legitimate government!" As an excuse to disperse the Soviets killed or imprisoned far-left radicals.Let the country finally reign strict discipline in the army and in the workplace.It was necessary to eliminate the dual power.The crisis of the Provisional Government (March-July 1917.) Can be considered infinitely long, it's interesting and colorful theme.Despite the fact that in March 1917, abolished the death penalty, it was proposed to re-introduce for the establishment of a hard rule.Liberals were horrified by such suggestions.Kornilov went to the front.
first coalition government
It is the turn of temporary coalition government of Russia in 1917.We create the first coalition government, which was six socialist ministers.The post of Minister of War took Kerensky.
crises of the Provisional Government in 1917, which is represented by a table in the article, and even intensified by the economic crisis.Do not get the Provisional Government to restore order in the country, to raise the transport industry to the proper level, also established was to supply the army with food and cities.At this time, the authority of the Bolsheviks was growing up, as well as their number.
crises of the Provisional Government in 1917 (see table)
|Events of 1917 and alternatives.|
1. April - the first crisis.
2. May - the creation of the 1st of the coalition government.
3. June - the first Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies.
First All-Russian Congress of Peasants' Deputies
This congress was held in May 1917, Lenin urged landowners to divide the land, give it to the people.Lenin's words have caused support for ordinary people, but it Chernova, who spoke about the long preparation and publication of the law of the land, has not made adequate hype.
First All-Russian Congress of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies
This congress was held in June 1917, on it, the Bolsheviks received only 105 seats out of 777. However, their leader Lenin clearly declared itself.He promised that, thanks to the party reigns order in the country, without civil war solved the agrarian and labor questions.
scheme: crisis of the Provisional Government in 1917
the maturing of the second crisis of the Provisional Government
June 10 the Bolsheviks had decided to hold a demonstration under the motto to strengthen its prestige.However, at the Congress of the decision it was prohibited and held the overall rally in support of the Provisional Government.Supported the offensive at the front, scheduled for June 18, 1917.The crisis of the Provisional Government of the newly arrived, as most of the demonstrators carried slogans of the Bolsheviks.It became clear that soon the Bolsheviks try to seize power.All compounded by the fact that the offensive at the front collapsed, inflation grew.The national question started the collapse of Russia.Ukrainians, Finns, and so on. D. Demanding independence and autonomy.
July crisis of the Provisional Government
These events took place from 3 to 4 July.During this period, the Cadets resigned from the government, refused to consider the question of the independence of Ukraine.A controversial issue was the sending machine-gun regiment of the Petrograd garrison to the front, the soldiers took to the streets of the city.Sailed from Kronstadt sailors supported by armed workers.Speeches were commanded by the Bolsheviks.The demonstration was a bright, loud, resounding with slogans.The demonstrators demanded the end of the war, want the power of the Soviets, the peasants demanded land.
Loyal government troops tried to stop the Bolsheviks, but to no avail.Power gradually passed into their hands.Armed soldiers, workers, sailors led the Bolshevik Party.
Council meeting was held in the Tauride Palace, which was surrounded by demonstrators.The minister of agriculture tried to explain to the people, but it just captured.The Bolsheviks seized power almost, but Lenin refused to pursue the case, because he was afraid that he could not control the process and to keep this relish for a long time.July crisis of the Provisional Government was quite serious.
outcome of the July demonstration
loyalist forces launched a hunt for the Bolsheviks.Many have gone into hiding.Members of the Provisional Government were seriously opposed to the Bolsheviks.Vyshinsky signed an order for the arrest of the head of the Bolsheviks.It was officially announced that he is suspected in connection with the Germans.
it was difficult time in which there was a crisis of the Provisional Government.Additional materials, various historical studies allow today is safe to say that the prosecution Lenin was lawful, since money is really the Bolsheviks took the Germans.Open remains only a matter of time, t. E. When they began to take them - or at the beginning of the war in 1916.The amount received from the Germans, is also unknown.How many millions of German marks received for their revolution, the Bolsheviks, Lenin personally whether they accept what the conditions for obtaining funds - is unknown.Until now, disputes related Brest-Litovsk whether to give the money or not.However, it is clear that in any case the money was serious.The prosecution also against Lenin never considered, he managed to escape, first in St. Petersburg and then in Finland.Rebellious regiments were disbanded and disarmed.It was restored the death penalty for disobedience at the front.
power by the Bolsheviks.The third crisis
August crisis of the Provisional Government was the last.The Bolsheviks took heart and, in spite of everything, re-organized the uprising and seized power through armed.The decision was adopted at the 4th Congress of the Party.It was in early August 1917, Stalin was one of the main speakers.Let us consider how it happened.
August 27 Kornilov opposed the interim government, in its response to a rebel recognized.In Petrograd, introduced martial law.The Bolsheviks called on the people to repel the rebels, created the Red Guards.It all ended on September 2.Kornilov and his followers were arrested.
arrest of the Provisional Government, however
performance Kornilov showed a split in the ruling circles, which won the Bolsheviks.They took advantage of the war in order to gain power.October 24 issued a decree on closing all the newspapers of the Bolsheviks, they closed at 5:00, it took several hours and they again come back under the rule of the Bolsheviks.October 25 the rebels took Nikolaev (Moscow) railway station, at 6.00 - the State Bank, an hour - the central office, at 13.00 - the Mariinsky Palace.
At 18.00 all the forces gathered at the Winter Palace, announced an hour ultimatum to the government, and then began to shoot from "Aurora".At 2 am, he was arrested members of the Provisional Government, power passed to the Soviets.
Thus, we see that it was just 3 of the crisis of the Provisional Government.Pay attention to the table presented below, it will help to understand the material.
crises of the Provisional Government in 1917 Scheme table: reasons for the victory of the Bolsheviks
1. The government has not solved the social and agrarian issues.
2. Do not convene a constituent assembly.
3. Loss of respect for the Provisional Government.
4. Lenin's promise to solve all the problems.
Driving the Bolsheviks came to power
|1.TEMPORARY government does not solve the problems of Russian society||2.Nedovolstvo power grows||3. Bolsheviks promise to solve all the problems that came to power||4.Vosstanie||5.Pobeda Bolsheviks|
difficult was in 1917 for the people.Temporary power made a lot of mistakes, than the Bolsheviks helped to take her place.Lenin also correctly held a course for victory, was able to motivate people and to present information tactfully.Difficult and thorny was the path of the Bolsheviks, but they had their own beliefs and goals.The situation in 1917 again shows that ideology - this is a very large force, as long as it was in the safe hands of competent and honest people acting in good faith.
Note again that the Bolsheviks helped win: it is a complex social situation in the country, the wrong policy of the government, so that it fell to the authority competent and beautiful public statements of the leader of the proletariat, the ability to persuade and motivate people.If the interim government tried to solve the problems of the people, did not tighten its policy, did not return to the death penalty, do not get involved in the war, decided to agrarian and social problems, there would be the Kornilov revolt, you may not receive the Bolsheviks coup.