«The sun will become dark as sackcloth of hair, and the moon shall not give her light ... The forces of heaven shall be shaken, and all the elements fade ..." These words were spoken nearly two thousand years ago, in artistic images describing how will be the end of time or the heat deathuniverse.But after eighteen centuries, until researchers come to study this issue from a scientific point of view.In fact, as soon as mankind to discover the basic laws of thermodynamics, this issue will sooner or later had to be.Logically, if a natural principle operates in a closed system, why not suggest that this trend is running for the entire universe?
first hypothesis heat death of the universe was proposed by William Thompson in 1852, but later, in 1865, it more fully formulated R. Clausius.He extrapolated to the second law of thermodynamics space.According to this rule, every closed system tends towards equilibrium when the energy of the radiation is converted into heat."Death" comes when it reaches the maximum level of entropy.At this point, any energy exchange does not occur because all of it is converted into heat.And since there is no reason to suppose that besides the space there is anything that makes finding Clausius, our universe can be viewed as a closed system, and it works the same law.
Naturally, neither Thompson nor Clausius did not assume that the heat death of the universe take place soon, but even its very distal end of the light caused a stir in the scientific community, and spawned a variety refute this hypothesis.In 1872 the scientist Ludwig Boltzmann theorized fluctuations.According to that our universe is too vast and complex to die a simple death.She always remained and will remain in a state of equilibrium isothermal, but in its various parts are constantly taking place, and there will always be deviations from this state.That is, these bursts of energy emissions will not start the mechanism of transfer of the energy of the universe into heat.
Modern science has neither confirmed nor refuted the hypothesis that the heat death of the universe will inevitably come.The concept of the Big Bang supposedly occurred about 14 billion years ago and gave rise to all does not prove that the cosmos acts only CMB.We must also consider the effect of variable gravitational field.Of particular note is the theory of Friedman: filled with gravitating matter in the universe is not stationary, it or extended or compressed.And if so, an increasing entropy does not cause the whole system to thermodynamic equilibrium.
heat death of the universe can be called into question, and from the standpoint of the general theory of relativity.We still know too little about our world, to judge with absolute certainty whether our world is closed and there is beyond anything else.Perhaps it are other external forces and systems?The laws of physics, we know, does not necessarily have to be applied on the scale of infinite space, - say the defenders of eternal light in the universe.Stars on and off, but the system is in equilibrium, which, however, does not lead to the death of the entire heat.
Despite the fact that the concept of the possible death of the universe neither confirmed nor refuted by modern science, the question began to excite not only the "physicists" and "poets".Especially draw inspiration from possible destruction of all living things science fiction writers.For example, Isaac Asimov predicted literally chilling end to all life in his story "The Last Question".Heat death of the whole organic formed the basis of many stories of Japanese cartoons and anime series.