Personality of Peter I has a significant place in the history of Russia.Today, the memory of it alive.All places that are associated with the presence of the king-reformer, interesting to historians and ordinary citizens of the country.
first building in the new capital of Russia
appearance of buildings, which later became known as House of Peter 1, due to the historical events of 1703.At that time, Russia strengthens its position in the Baltic Sea, there was a war with Sweden, the construction of the fortress and the new town on the banks of the Neva.
By order of the king was built log house.Its location was very convenient: from the neighborhood could watch the construction of the fortress, the conduct of hostilities, the descent of ships on the water.Peter I was in the house when he thought it necessary to appear in person in the course of events.
Visit the house and living in it lasted until the time has not yet built the first residence of the king in St. Petersburg.With the 1708 Summer House 1 Peter ceased used for its original purpose.
The construction involved carpenters from the number of soldiers.House of Peter 1 was built in a very short period of time.According to eyewitnesses, this took only three days.
He was felled from hewn pine logs that were taken for the construction nearby.Carpenters in the construction of the building were guided by the old traditions associated with the construction of Russian huts.However, certain details of construction can be seen the presence of elements of Dutch architecture.The king at the time was very impressed with the architecture of this country.
By order of the king skived logs and painted by red brick.High roof was covered so that produce the kind of tiled roofs.Unusually large for Russian architecture appeared window.
House of Peter 1 has a very simple interior layout.All the space of the room is divided into two parts, interconnected vestibule.It was equipped office king, dining room and bedroom.Furnaces and chimneys are not available.This again indicates that the house unused winter.
Saving lodge descendants
equip and every year gaining power St. Petersburg.House of Peter 1, in spite of the modest architecture, it was decided to maintain as a precious relic.Through the efforts of the descendants of the building has reached our days intact.
In 1731, the house was built on the roof, which protects it from the elements until 1784.It was then that the building was placed inside the stone "of the case."And in 1844 "Case" has been replaced with a new one.It was built of stone and glass, hiding the iron roof.That's what the building now.
transforms the area around the place where the house of Peter 1. In 1852, the site was surrounded by an iron fence.In front of the smashed a small square, surround it with metal bars.The works were carried out in 1875.At the same time in the park installed a bust of Peter.
a short time in the house acted chapel.To this end, in its architecture and interior fittings have been changed.But they were later removed, and building again gave the original appearance.
In 1930, the summer house of Peter 1 endured another transformation: here was opened museum.Its exhibits were personal belongings of the king, household items and documents related to the era.
Special efforts are required from employees Memorial Museum during the period of the Great Patriotic War.House of Peter had to carefully conceal, save it in a similar way from the devastating bombing.After the lifting of the blockade is this museum one of the first to be restored.In 1944, he had already received his visitors.
In the postwar years, during the existence of the Soviet Union, itself a house, canopy and metal grille around the buildings were repaired.In addition, it carries out scientific restoration of all structures.
more than fifty years the museum has an opportunity to work year-round, as the building has heating.The exposition is located inside the house and indoor cover.
House in Kolomna
There is another interesting building, connected with the life of the king.History can tell about her museum-reserve "Kolomenskoye".House of Peter 1 was moved here in 1934.This happened thanks to the efforts of Peter D. Baranovsky - the first director of the memorial complex in Kolomna.It was he who saved the building from destruction (decision to demolish the buildings had already been taken by the authorities in Arkhangelsk).
construction refers to 1702, and the construction site was the mouth of the Northern Dvina.The house was built specifically for the king.He came to this region in order to personally supervise the construction of the fortress on the newly acquired lands and to evaluate its strategic importance in the defense of the assault Archangel Swedes.
The House of Peter I lived only two months, but his stay here very proud afterwards locals.They did not once make an effort to save the historic building.
In 1710 it was moved from a low wetland to a safer area for the wooden building.
According to eyewitnesses, during the period from 1723 to 1730 (the exact date, historians have not established) in the house there was a fire, but it was quickly extinguished.
In 1800 the building was restored, after which it staid another 77 years.In 1877 the house was transferred to Arkhangelsk, hid for safekeeping timber "sheath", which was later replaced by a stone.As such, the house stood on the embankment of the Northern Dvina until it is transported to Kolomenskoye.
At the new location the house of Peter has been collected in violation of the rules of the restoration work.Only in 2008 it was significantly reconstructed architecture of the building, its interior decoration.
house was built in the traditional Russian style, but elements of innovation reviewed here.Under assumptions of historians, they can appear on the personal order of the king.
Modern museum exposition acquaints visitors with the historical events of the time of Peter, an outstanding personality of the king converter his varied interests.It is the only museum in Moscow dedicated to the life of Peter I.