Most city dwellers gradually lose skills of orienteering in the forest, as well as distinguishing the edible and inedible forest products.The same applies to fungi, because it seems that they are much easier to buy in the store.But it must be taken into account and the pleasure that can be obtained in the process of hunting for them.So, for example, how to look for the white fungus?
Most of these organisms are associated exclusively with their fruits - that can be seen, for example, in the shops.But biology course many remember that things are not so simple.The first feature - the mushrooms are not plants.And they really are very different from them.Second, the fungus - it's not just what is seen on the surface.This is only his body, a small part.And the main is under the ground - a mycelium.Few people did not notice that mushrooms grow like groups - find one near you to find a few more.And all because the soil is the same mycelium, which is not rooted in the ordinary sense of the word, but it has a number of similar features.It may extend over quite a large space and comes to the surface in the form of bodies of fungi.
properties and nutritional value
They are called forest meat, and this name is no accident.They are almost entirely composed of water, followed by content - protein, about the same amount of carbohydrates and very little fat.When dried the number of proteins per 100 grams increases to approximately 30%, however replacement of meat it can not serve.The fact that most of the protein is not digested by the human body because of the special substances - chitin included in the cell membrane of fungi.
But we can not ignore the fact that they contain a large quantity of useful trace elements and vitamins.Some of them may even serve as a medicine against some disease - the study of these properties is engaged in a separate area called Fungoterapiya.But in addition, we must not forget that it is heavy enough food that is digested for a long time.
Gribnikov often referred to as hunters, and this is in general true.Their task is to actually tracking down their prey, as luck rarely smiles to those who are at random.These people possess the secrets of how to look for mushrooms, where to do it, at what time.Of course, they also distinguish edible from poisonous mushrooms and have still a number of special skills and knowledge.So, what are the basic rules that you need to know to "quiet hunt" went well?
Where and how to look for mushrooms?
In the forest there are the places where most probably the hunter meets his prey.The main weapon here - knowledge.Some species prefer sunny edges and clearings, and others - shady lowlands.But there are some universal rules to help both beginners and more experienced hunters mushrooms.
First, you need to go into the woods in the early morning, when there is no slanting sunlight and do not dry the dew.That moisture after a cool night will notice shiny wet hat in the grass.
Secondly, we must remember the principle of the growth of fungi - if there was one, the next will definitely be a few more.So you need to take a closer look around.
Thirdly, the best way to arrange the first trips with experienced guides.This will get the skills orientation in the forest, as well as understand how to look for mushrooms.
Fourth, a good helper will stick around a special meter length with a slingshot at the end.It is very convenient to push the grass in front of him and to the side so as not to miss a single boletus or Borovik.
Yet every fan of "quiet hunting" has its own secrets, how to find a white fungus where to look for mushrooms.Gathering in the forest for the specific types, you need to know not only when to collect their best, but their favorite places.
Mushroom season in Moscow
Traditionally, the meat should produce forest in the fall, but it does not mean that fans of "quiet hunting" in October put their baskets for almost a year.In fact, the first mushrooms can appear in March, though at that time very few of them, it is better to postpone the start of the season until April or May (depending on the rate of melting of snow and raising the average daily temperature).In Moscow at this time collected morels and lines that look strange, but they have excellent taste.
In late May and early June are beginning to emerge, and many other boletus mushrooms summer, and in July, are slowly beginning to bear fruit all the main species, although it is now considered not too fruitful.This active season starts in August, when the forest is really hiding untold riches!This is a golden time lasts until about mid-September and provides an opportunity not to find out how to search for mushrooms in the forest, because they are literally everywhere and almost do ask in the basket.Seasoned know that during the summer there are several "waves" of growth, or "layers".The first of these came in the second half of July, and the rest - for a short time before this autumn.This is exactly the time when the newcomer is best to try their hand.
In late October, the main season is closed, although some enthusiasts can stretch it for another few weeks.And yet, where to look for mushrooms, so do not go at random?For each type requires its own approach.
King forests - is, of course, boletus.Usually he lives under a pine, oak, spruce and birch.It does not even notice it is difficult, because it is a white fungus.Where to look for chanterelles probably know everything - mostly in deciduous forests, although they are found in conifers.To find honey agaric can apply a simple method - looking up, find a dry oak with no leaves, and look for this kind of close to him, because they are parasites that cause illness and death of trees.How to search for mushrooms with "speaking" names and boletus Boletus, probably not even worth mentioning.In fact, the ability to find suitable places comes with experience, the main thing - not to lose enthusiasm.
For starters, you can go to areas that are considered the most "fruitful".In the suburbs mushroom pickers often come out at stations Larks, Tuchkovo, Dorokhovo, victory, country, Zosima desert White Pillars, Lviv, Donino, Gzhel, Zelenograd, Abramtsevo, Khimki, Povarovo and so on. D. In fact, at the height of the season is easy to understand,which is now very popular place - at them from morning trains coming off a lot of people with baskets.
Walking in the woods, you need to dress properly and to comply with all the necessary safety precautions.For example, wear a hat and boots.This will help to protect yourself from ticks and snakes that are found in grass and bushes.
Each mushroom has to carry a knife and special packaging.Neutral package will not work because it assembled quickly "suffocate" lose the whole look and feel good, crumble, and immediately begin to rot.It is best suited willow baskets.As for the method of collection, there are two diametrically opposite opinions: some believe that it is better to cut the mushrooms, while others insist that this method provokes decay and death of the mycelium, so it is best to twist the leg out of the ground like a screw.General opinion, unfortunately, no.
edible and inedible
One of the first rules of mushroom is this - if in doubt, should be abandoned.Learn to distinguish edible from poisonous of their fellow is not so difficult, it is a matter of practice.But the fact is that even the most delicious birch, aspen and boletus can be fraught with danger.Prior to determine where to look for mushrooms, you need to find the right place for that - wood, which is far enough from the roads, and any other sources of pollution.Each hat and beautiful curvy leg, found near such places, threatening poisoning.The fact is that mushrooms absorb all harmful substances, like a sponge, and it is impossible to get rid of them.Therefore, you should consider a few times, choosing a place where to look for mushrooms in the suburbs.
Another feature affects the edibility is the relative position of the different species.Sometimes it happens that the mushroom is a clearing with a family of hats.And suddenly in the middle of the crowd found pale toadstool.Better to throw collected because the poison got into the mycelium, can cause the most successful in the case of severe poisoning.
Also, do not bring home the big overripe specimens.It is better to do otherwise - to pin the hat on the branch of a tree in the forest.So disputes will be easier to spread, and for the next year have the chance to see the same places more mushrooms.
all make mistakes sometimes, but it is important to fix it in time.After eating mushrooms and suddenly wondered, you need to analyze their condition.Cheerleaders have the following symptoms:
- abdominal pain;
- nausea, vomiting;
- lifting or lowering of the temperature;
- increased salivation and / or sweating;
appearance of several of these symptoms after eating the mushrooms - this is a reason to seek help immediately, even if it seems that this is not necessary.It could save someone's life, and the poison can even edible, but mishandled views.
How to cook?
Before the search for mushrooms in the forest, it is useful to ask how they should be handled.They are almost not stored, so that immediately after collecting them to be processed.Just a few hours - and all forest resources can safely carry the trash, so you better hurry.First, you need to iterate over all, peel and chop.Species such as morels and lines require separate attention to themselves - they have to be washed very carefully.Regarding conditional edible fungi usually they must be soaked for several hours to get rid of bitterness.In general, the preparation of each type requires its own approach.Some longer suitable for frying, the other for fire, and others - for pickling.But in the end, it's a matter of taste.