Marshland - a special flora and fauna.Nature is the swamp that is home to various animals and grow amazing plants, many of which are listed as endangered.From a scientific perspective, the marsh - is a marshy land that has high humidity and acidity.In such places, there is a constant dampness, strong evaporation and lack of oxygen (photo swamp presented in the article).If you talk in plain language, this is an amazing microcosm with its unique vegetation and no less unique inhabitants.Here are some of them and we'll talk in more detail.
As there are swamps?
swamp soil through the activities of animals (such as otters) or human-caused.With the construction of their dams, constructions intended for special reservoirs and ponds, soil inevitably loses its properties, the degree of losing fertility, silting.One of the main conditions for the formation of swamps - is a constant excess moisture.In turn, excess moisture can be triggered by certain features of the local topography, for example, there are lowlands, which are constantly flocking to the ground water and precipitation.
All this leads to the formation of peat. Soon there is a swamp.The inhabitants of these places - a kind of being.The fact is that every living organism can adapt to life in such extreme conditions, because, as has been said, there is not always enough oxygen, the soil has a low degree of fertility, and the entire area is characterized by excess moisture and, of course, acidity.Therefore such animals should pay tribute!So, we get to know these characters more closely.
In general, all potential animal swamps - are the numerous, but most non-permanent residents of this area.Many of them stay here only for a short time, for example, for a season, then leave in a hurry these things gloomy place.Permanent inhabitants of the marshlands are not many, but they know almost everything.Among them the most famous and numerous members of the class are amphibians or amphibians: frogs, toads and newts.
Frogs Frogs - perhaps the best-known and most numerous inhabitants of the swamp.Many herpetologists (specialists on amphibians and reptiles) believe these creatures is quite fascinating creatures and consider them among the most beautiful animals in the world.Indeed, the structure of the body frogs quirky and unique.Their head is relatively large and broad.They do not have a neck.Therefore, once the head goes into a short but wide body.
Frogs consist in the squad Anura, which has about 6,000 current and about 84 fossil species.As the title of the order, these creatures have neither the neck or tail.But possess two pairs of well-developed limbs.Herpetologists attributed to Anura tree frogs, poison dart frogs, toads, frogs and frog.Outwardly, they look like frogs, but are not in a close relationship with them.
During the day these creatures bask in the sun from the comfort of lilies marsh or on the beach.If by a mosquito flies, beetle or a fly, frog lightning throws its sticky tongue to the side of the insect.Catching prey, amphibians immediately swallows it.Propagate by frog spawn in the swamp.Residents of such reservoirs are not averse to eat frog eggs, so several thousand eggs thrown into the water to survive only a few dozen.
happens in early April.That's when the frogs wake up after winter hibernation.Already on the fifth day of the surviving eggs tadpoles emerge.The frogs they turn 4 months.
The largest frog in the world is Goliath, living in the African country of Cameroon.This establishment reaches a length of 33 cm and weighing up to 4 kg.However, the most common in the world is green frog.The area of its habitat - the whole of Europe, northwest Africa, and Asia.This kind of tailless amphibians found in the swamps of our most everyone else.
«ally» frogs are toads.It has some animals that live in marshes throughout the year.For centuries, the reputation of these amphibians poisonous creatures.The residents believe that the toads have some poisonous slime, which endows his enemies.Many still believe that if you pick up a toad, they will supposedly warts.This is not quite true.Most of these amphibians are harmless to humans.Of course, in tropical countries are found poisonous toads and frogs, but they can be recognized by the corresponding bright colors.
Remember frogs that live in the swamps Russian, do not cause any harm to humans.On the contrary, they benefit, destroying a lot of harmful worms, slugs and flying insects.These creatures are nocturnal and, unlike frogs, almost do not need water.That's why in the daytime toads hardly meet.However marshy swamp - the best habitat for these amphibians.
squad tailed amphibians is represented by salamanders and newts.If the first - it's mostly land creatures, the newts - it is just the same animals marshes.Externally, these creatures are somewhat similar to lizards, only their skin - smooth and moist, and the tail - the vertical plane (like fish).Torso newts has an elongated and spindle-shaped structure.Their small head immediately goes into the calf, which also imperceptibly into tail.
Most newts live permanently in the swamp, spending most of the year.However, they are secretive way of life.To see with the naked eye of newt in the wild is almost impossible!They - excellent swimmers, but on the banks of a completely helpless creatures.Representatives squad tailed amphibians - is a sedentary animal attached to his native home - the swamp.They are inactive and totally adapted to long-distance travel.
of the permanent representatives of the class of mammals can distinguish aquatic rodents: muskrats and water predators - otters.It should be noted that the inhabitants of the swamp mammals can live not only in water but also on its edges.For example, there are found hygrophilous voles and water rats.By the way, they both thrive in this environment: they are seekers - mossy hummocks, and the food - cranberries, blueberries and seeds of various herbs.
homeland of these animals is North America.In Russia they were imported from Canada in 1928.Very little time is needed to these creatures to spread across the country.Muskrat - are representatives of rodent animals and permanent wetlands.They live in small and large lakes, in river pools and, of course, in the dark moors.There they are, like beavers in flowing waters currently constructing houses out of the material at hand.
settlements in the swamp of these rodents are easy to find.They are cone-shaped housing and reach a height of about one meter.Muskrat lodge has a unique structure: the inside has one or more specialized chambers, and in the center - the nest.Mammalogy (mammals experts) say that it is just created for animal life in the water.Muskrat swim quickly and easily.When looking at this creation leave no doubt that the swamp - his home!
These creatures are the largest members of the weasel family from the order of carnivores.They, like the muskrat - the permanent and irreplaceable animals swamps, rivers, large and small lakes.Adults reach a length of about 1 m, and weigh up to 15 kg.These mammals are found in almost every corner of our country, with the exception of Antarctica and Australia.Mother Nature has produced these animals for living in the water element.
round head, short but thick neck, barrel-shaped torso, thick tail and webbed feet help otters effortlessly cut the water surface.These mammals are non-stop lifestyle.Since otters - are predators, they feed on their same "neighbors" of the swamp frogs, voles, muskrats, crabs, worms, snails, snakes.In his spare time, they hunt fun for fun, frolic in the wetland marshes, rolling down to the shores of the water, and so on. D.
Occasionally otters leave their marshy swamp, going on a so-called "fishing."Several animals swim in fresh water source and begin a joint hunt for local fish.Otters together are driving a school of fish in any narrow strait, where they will be easier to catch their prey.Small fish eat animals without leaving the water, and large - just on the beach.
way, by nature otter - peaceful animals.Their calm nature is preserved most of the year, but in the mating season between the rivals, males may experience the real bloody battle for a female!
birds living in the marshes
Scientists who have studied the fauna of swamps, argue that this area is quite suitable for the existence of many representatives of the world fauna, including birds.For example, the succulent stems and fruits of marsh plants are the essential source of power ptarmigan, marsh owls, shorebirds and ducks.These birds have long chosen this area and feel quite comfortable here.
Frankly, birds are not very much and like to settle in these areas.Bird watchers have noticed that occasionally arrive at the swamp grouse and capercaillie.Apparently, they are driven by the desire to eat delicious berries.According to scientists, in a rather marshy headwaters of these places can live even gray crane.The fact that the marsh for cranes - a real protection against external civilization.Besides, not everyone will be able to get through these swamps!
Talking about what the animals in the swamp found refuge, not to mention the queen of these places - heron.Probably many of us do not understand the strange predilections of this bird to the marshland.Meanwhile, herons settle here not by chance!The fact that the shrubs, sedges and reeds provide excellent protection from predators.Moreover, there is always something to make money (eg, frogs).
Heron, of course, can not be called beautiful bird, but the queen of the marshes - it is!While some bird watchers still believe that the definition of beauty and even grace peculiar to some extent representative of the fauna.However awkward and angular movements, as well as strange and sometimes frankly sloppy posture reduce all its beauty to nothing.
Whatever it was, and the heron perfectly adapted to life in such a peculiar environment.It is impossible to imagine these birds is any water bodies and wetlands!They quickly climb the reeds, excellent move on the water.That's just the voice of them unpleasant, reminiscent of whether someone cries, whether someone roar.Bird watchers warn that herons are very insidious, and sometimes evil creatures.They live in communities, but these gregarious birds can not be named.
general diet of egrets fish, but its wetlands virtually none.This explains why such passion these creatures to frogs.Herons great pleasure to regale tailless amphibians, crabs, worms and snails.
And finally ... Why in the swamp so many frogs?
At the beginning of this article, we talked about the harsh conditions of life in the marshland.Since this area has a pronounced acidity, many animals and plants have a swamp low oxidation.Such protection is to develop in them over time.Especially good it is necessary to cool the inhabitants of the area, namely, frogs, toads and newts.Perhaps for this reason they are the most numerous inhabitants of the marshlands (see. Photo swamp).