Iron ore is a special mineral formation consisting of iron and its compounds.Iron ore is considered that if it contains this element in sufficient quantities to be economically profitable to extract.
main varieties of iron ore is magnetite.It contains almost 70% of nitrous oxide and iron.This ore is black or steel-gray color.Magnetic iron ore is mined in Russia in the Urals.It is found in the depths of the mountains Magnetic, High, Grace and Kachkanar.In Sweden it is in the neighborhood Falun dannemorite and Gällivare.In the US - a PA and in Norway - Arendal and Persberg.
in the steel industry iron ore products are divided into three types:
- the separated iron ore (low iron);
- sinter ore (with an average iron content);
- pellets (iron-containing raw mass).
be considered as Rich deposits of iron ore, which contain more than 57% of iron in its composition.By poor ores include those in which at least 26% iron.The researchers divided the iron ore into two morphological types: linear and ploskopodobny.
Iron ore line type is a wedge-shaped ore bodies in the areas of twists and earth faults.This type is characterized by particularly high iron content (50 to 69%), but the sulfur and phosphorus contained in the ore in a small amount.
Ploskopodobnye deposits are found on the tops of layers of ferruginous quartzite, which are typical weathering crust.
Iron ore.The use and production
rich iron ore finds use for iron and mainly goes to smelt in the converter and open-hearth production, or directly on the reduction of iron.A small amount is used as a natural dye (ocher) and the weighting of clay muds.
Global stocks of explored fields amount to 160 billion. Tons, and iron they contain about 80 billion. Tons.Iron ore is found in Ukraine, and the largest reserves of pure iron have Russia and Brazil.
volume of world production of ore are growing every year.Most iron ore is mined by open method, the essence of which is that all the necessary equipment is delivered to the field, and there build a career.Depth career averages about 500 m, and its diameter depends on the characteristics of the found fields.After that, with the help of special equipment extract iron ore, put on cars, adapted for the transport of heavy loads, and deliver from the quarry to the enterprises which are engaged in processing.
disadvantage of the open method is the ability to extract ore only at a shallow depth.If it lies much deeper, it is necessary to build the mine.First, make the trunk, resembling a deep well with a well-fortified walls.The different sides of the trunk depart corridors, the so-called drifts.Found therein ore blasted, and then it is raised to the surface of the pieces using special equipment.Iron ore mining in this way is effective, but is associated with a serious risk and costs.
There is another way by which mined iron ore.It is called the SRS or hydraulic borehole.The ore extracted from the ground in such a way: a well is drilled, it is lowered into the pipe and jetting very powerful water jet crushed rock, which is then lifted to the surface.Iron ore by this method is safe, but, unfortunately, ineffective.So it manages to get only 3% of the ore, and 70% is produced by a mine.However, the development of a method of SRS improved, and there is a high probability that in the future this option will be the main, replacing mines and quarries.