Basic salts.

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basic salts are sufficiently large group of compounds.This group includes borates, halides, nitrites, sulfites.The group of "basic salts" include carbonates, nitrates, sulfates.

Category borates includes several types of connections.In particular, borates include metaboric (NVO2), orthoboric (H3BO3), as well as unallocated to idle polibornye acid.In accordance with the number of boron atoms, these basic salts are divided into hexa-, tetra-, di-, monoborates etc.Borates may be referred to acid produced them, and the number of moles B2O3, which accounts for 1 mole of the basic oxide.

Interaction metal salts (ammonium, alkali and others) in the oxidation state 1 involves the formation usually anhydrous and hydrated type MVO2 metaborates, pentaborates MV5O8 tetraborate M2V4O7 and others.

Borates are colorless crystals or amorphous materials.Usually they are different low-symmetry structure - rhombic or monoclinic.

Anhydrous borates possess a melting point in the range 500 - 2000 degrees.The most fusible include alkali metal metaborates, and orthoborates meta- and alkaline earth compounds.Most of the materials during cooling melts readily form glasses.

loss of water of crystallization from hydrated monoborates occurs at about one hundred and eighty, and at polyborates - three hundred, five hundred degrees.Complete dehydration results in the formation of amorphous materials which undergo crystallization at five hundred - eight hundred degrees.As a result of this "rearrangement" of partial decomposition of the compounds, and the allocation of B2O3.

to alkali metal borate is characterized by the ability to dissolve in water.This is especially characteristic of penta and metaborate.These basic salts are mostly acids readily undergo decomposition.In some cases, the expansion takes place under the influence of SO2 and CO2.

borates heavy and alkaline earth metals are able to interact with the alkaline carbonate and hydrocarbonate solutions.Anhydrous compounds are more chemically resistant than hydrated.With a number of alcohols, glycerol, in particular borates form complexes that are soluble in water.Under the influence of strong oxidants H2O2, in particular either by the electrochemical oxidation occurs in peksoboraty conversion.

In nature, about a hundred known borates.Generally they are salts of Mg, Na, Fe, Ca.It should be noted that these elements are applied widely.In particular, the chlorides of these elements are a variety of such substances as "technical salt" which, in turn, is used in various industries.

Anhydrous borates are dehydrated.Applied also and sintering or fusing B2O3 with carbonates or metal oxides.Single crystals are grown in molten oxides, such as Bi2O3.Getting hydrated borates carry out the reaction of mutual conversion of sparingly soluble compounds from aqueous solutions of alkali metal borates group using neytrolizatsii N3VO3 hydroxides, oxides or carbonates metals.

borates used in the preparation of other boron compounds.In particular, as the mixture components in the manufacture of glass enamels, glazes, ceramic.The compounds used in the manufacture of fire-resistant coating and impregnation.Borates are used for refining as a flux when soldering and welding of metals.Apply them as fillers and pigments for paints and varnishes, mordants for dyeing, as well as inhibitors of the (retarding) corrosion of components of electrolytes, and other phosphors.The most commonly used calcium borate and borax.