As technology improves new weapons is becoming increasingly topical issue of revising the measures of military deterrence.The first development of hypersonic weapons actively tested by China, the United States and England, and that makes Russia included in this arms race, and not without success.Domestic designers are working in two main areas, taking into account not only the offensive potential of the hypersonic weapons and defenses.Serial production of the models of this type in the advanced countries, is likely to be possible in about 10 years, but we already know that the latest generation of missile defense will not be able to resist this threat.
Features hypersonic weapons
tasks set before the hypersonic weapon, first placed on cruise missiles based at the air.Testing prototypes Defense show that the arsenal of a new generation of an order superior to all existing analogues due to high speed.Along with this hypersonic weapon has a high accuracy and efficiency of defeat.In practice, this means that the interception capabilities of air defense missiles today is impossible or at least difficult.
Based marked advantages, one could argue that it creates and the effect of surprise - the destruction of the target occurs about an hour after the decision.Anyway, these are the characteristics of advanced Russian hypersonic weapons, not allowing the enemy time to prepare to repel the strike.If we talk about hitting range, then at the moment it is limited to a few thousand kilometers, but in the near future it is possible to achieve the object anywhere in the world.
One of the most promising developments in Russia this class is aerodynamic hypersonic weapon - an electromagnetic gun (or catapult).This large-scale project starting aviaustanovki, which is engaged in the creation of a secret organization.Nevertheless, it is known that electromagnetic cannon called no other than the induction linear motor accelerates jets to incredible speeds.It is assumed that the catapult will be installed on a special aircraft carrier with a displacement of about 80 thousand. Tons, the construction of which will be completed in 2018.
Today prototypes have similar weapons in China and the United States.Regarding China, these data have not been confirmed, but the Pentagon for 10 years led the development in this direction and today offers installation EMALS, designed for aircraft carrier "Gerald Ford".
the first time about the need for ultra-high speeds on warheads spoke in the USSR, when attempts were made to complement the winged supersonic ballistic missile nuclear charges instead.The continuation of this concept is the latest hypersonic weapons to Russia in the form of a hypersonic aircraft (SFA).Also unprecedented speed (over 5 thousand. M / s), the system is able to change the trajectory - that non-classical model of the flight unit made one of a kind.GLA is able to go in the process of movement in space and back to the atmosphere, it is impossible even for modern missiles.
However, the United States and do not ignore these developments.Another thing is that the characteristics and potential of the use of force are considerably inferior to the domestic system.To date, the US has a hypersonic weapons of this class in several forms, including the Hyper-X prototypes and HySTR.Since the development of secrecy, little information about them, but we know that some of them are on the platform of ballistic missiles of strategic weapons that have already been removed from production.
On the one hand, almost all countries, leading towards the development of a hypersonic weapons were aimed at ensuring the safety of modern air defense.But on the other hand, there is a clear need, and it is protection from similar systems of the enemy, because the existing defensive systems are useless in front of missiles flying at ultra-high speeds.
promising direction in the creation of new-generation protection systems are aerospace defense - at the moment they can only oppose the possibilities available to the hypersonic weapon.Russia in this respect has more experience, as demonstrated prototypes of thermobaric and electromagnetic weapons.Despite this, ready-made samples, or even concepts, according to which it would be possible to talk about a reliable protection against hypersonic weapon yet.The only development that can theoretically provide a defensive function from the ground, is anti-aircraft missile system S-500, the appearance of which is only expected.
While many compare the effect of defeat hypersonic weapon with the fall of the meteorite (largely due to the speed of the charge), the warheads have no explosives, so the detonation of ammunition of the enemy object is not threatened.Yet hypersonic weapons pose a serious threat.The power potential, which is endowed with the usual metallic shell weighing about 20 kg, in the startup process takes tremendous kinetic energy.This is facilitated by an electrical impulse, which increases as the warhead passes between the two rails of the launcher.Huge amounts of energy to start the power and the subsequent withdrawal of the warheads heat from the gun barrel - that provides injurious hypersonic weapons.
engines for hypersonic vehicles
basis on which to develop the most promising hypersonic weapons to Russia, made up of all the jet engines for aircraft of the new generation.There rocket and straight-through, turbopryamotochnye and direct-flow power plants, which allow to reduce the weight of the equipment, but at the same time maintain a high striking potential.For example, a ramjet engine may include devices and SPVRD scramjet, which were developed since the 1960s and today have an optimized system operation at ultra-high speeds.Other destinations
idea of hypersonic weapons finds place in other niches of the domestic military-industrial complex.For example, the use of such technology allows creating even bomber.So-called waveriders as missiles, have unusual aerodynamic scheme, allowing to go into space and fuel economy.Also, representatives of the defense sector has repeatedly mentioned that Russia is preparing a new maneuvering warhead resembling US hypersonic weapon type glider CAV FALCON.
Perhaps this advanced unmanned aircraft, which will be installed a new generation of jet engines.Either way, the range of directions in which Russian engineers are working, is quite extensive in the future should provide protection and effective offensive potential.
in the modern sense of hypersonic weapons gained popularity thanks to the United States when it was formulated the concept of "global strike fast."The two thousandth began an arms race in recent years passes the test phase of the first prototypes of a hypersonic weapon.Russia it takes if not the first, one of the leading places.
Among its advantages include not only in-depth improvement of existing developments in this sector, as the possibility of combining the concept of a hypersonic missile, and air and space defense.At the same time mastered the design of aircraft, tested alternative fuels, including hydrogen, improving missiles and hypersonic engines for military equipment.