RN 11K77 «Zenit» - Intermediate class, designed for placing into Earth orbit satellites automatically civilian and military, as well as manned spacecraft.There are two- and three-stage modification.The fuel used kerosene brand RG-1 and liquid oxygen.
example of mutually beneficial cooperation
Asked rocket "Zenit" Russian or Ukrainian, not easy to answer.The main elements of the design developed in Dnepropetrovsk, CB "Southern" efforts of Soviet engineers and scientists.After the collapse of Secular Union Design Bureau came under the jurisdiction of Ukraine, keeping his profile activity and will continue to develop a series of "Zenith".Building rockets is also carried out at the Dnepropetrovsk plant "Pivdenmash."
Meanwhile, important elements of the design have been developed and produced at Russian enterprises.In particular, the upper stages of the brand "DM" produced RSC "Energia", and liquid rocket engines RD-171 and RD-171M - NPO "Energomash".In general, Russian companies have supplied 70% of the components.We can say that the "Zenith" - Ukrainian rocket, and its stuffing - Russian.
CB "South" was originally developed two-stage rocket "Zenit" index 11K77 in the late 1970s - early 1980s, according to the task of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR have the launch vehicle that would allow quick andsatellite groups effectively compensates for military purposes.
Accordingly, when it is designing a special attention was paid to reliability, ease of use and speed of preparation for the launch of what has been achieved through extensive use of standardization and automation.Boosters heavy class by definition can not be mobile, so the designers have focused on designing a rocket middle class.
Unlike systems developed in previous years, this design uses the most advanced technology training and start-up developed by the Research Institute of Insurance, partner of Enterprise "CB" South "on many projects.
debut launch of the carrier rocket took place in April 1985, and was non-standard, as well as repeated.Successful start-up carried out in October 1985.Initially, the complex is focused on the output of the operational military satellites and dual-use systems, but later reoriented to launch commercial satellites.
second area of application the original version of "Zenit-2» 11K77 was to provide flights to the space station "Mir" with the crew on board.To meet all the requirements for launch vehicles manned spacecraft, the design of "Zenit" was included significant internal redundancy and taken many other measures to increase reliability.
basic design parameters
«Zenit» - booster whose specifications and design parameters correspond to the best world standards.It deserves special attention the fact that more than 90% of the total mass of stages accounted for fuel.Thus, the construction of both stages is one of the best in modern astronautics.
With regard to the 1st stage is largely due to the high-performance engine RD171M and the lack of side accelerators.The absence of side accelerator further simplifies the preparation for the launch, as one of the main differences between "Zenit" on other launch vehicles.In addition, the design stage is more efficient, reducing the amount of fireworks, and increases overall reliability by eliminating the need for a mechanism of lateral separation accelerators.In addition, a wide range of handling all phases of flight allows the launches of "Zenith" at different wind speeds and in different weather conditions, which also contributes to the timely and accurate removal of payload.
On PH has a full set of on-board electronic equipment for the operation of the telemetry system.Onboard telemetry system "Sirius" TMI provides transmission on two separate radio channels to existing NPC, located in the territory of Russia.
Separation stages - "warm": carried out the launch of the steering motor 2nd stage, undermining mezhstupennyh mechanical connections and brake with four solid propellant separating part of the first stage.After her removal to a safe distance runs boosters 2nd stage.
on RN, the following systems to ensure its operation and functioning of the flight:
- management system;
- measurement system;
- said fluid system components supply;
- fuel consumption control system;
- refueling control system;
- security of the flight;
- temperature control system with high pressure air;
- elements of temperature control;
- elements of the thermostat;
- hydraulic system;
- pozharopreduprezhdeniya system.
"Zenit-2" after the collapse of the Soviet Union is not sunk into oblivion.Ukrainian company "Yuzhmash" in close cooperation with Russian and foreign partners to continue the development of the "Zenith".Missile systems have been developed, allowing to carry out launches from the ground ("Zenith-2SL B", "Zenit-3SL B", "Zenit-3SL BF") and offshore ("Zenit-3SL»).Almost all launches ground-based missile complexes were carried out at Baikonur.
international project "Sea Launch" was organized in 1995 by the efforts of the American company Boeing Commercial Space (40% of the capital), Russia's RSC "Energy" (25%), Ukrainian Software "Pivdenmash" and CB "South" (the total share of 15%) and Norwegian shipbuilders Aker Solutions (20%).The aim of the consortium is now more convenient and cost-effective launches from a sea platform "Odyssey", situated in the equatorial zone.Demonstrative missile test was successful.Since 1999 it was carried out 32 successful commercial launch with "Zenit-3SL», and 4 failed.At the moment, due to negative developments in Ukraine, the Ukrainian side in the project suspended its participation.
design of the first stage of "Zenit" includes:
- mezhstupennuyu frame;
- engine RD171 (RD171M);
- tail section;
- tanks of fuel and oxidizer.
Mezhstupennaya frame is a transition compartment welded truss.She mounted side board elektropnevmorazemov providing communication systems, launch vehicle and spacecraft with appropriate ground-based systems before the start of RKN.
The fuel tanks are located PGSP automation components, sensors RMS, Surt, in the oxidizer tank, in addition, the pressurization system installed cylinders.The tail section is located four-chamber engine RD171M that using the rod frame is mounted on the lower end frame.
power plant is designed to create traction and control efforts across all channels RCN stabilization.This engine was installed in the early stages of all modifications "Zenit".Rocket and now comes with an improved modification RD171M.The design of the engine introduced changes aimed at improving its reliability and performance.
The RD171 found the application of the most advanced technology of liquid rocket engine, developed by Russian companies in the field of engine.Currently modification RD171M rocket engine is the most powerful in the world, he thrust at the start (the Earth) is 740 ton.
design of the second stage of "Zenit" includes:
- instrument module;
- boosters RD120;
- steering motor RD8.
- oxidizer and fuel tanks;
- tail section.
The instrument module is placed the bulk of electronic onboard equipment control system and measurement system.The fuel tanks, as well as the first stage, placed sensors Surt, RMS, PGSP automation components in the oxidizer tank - tanks pressurization system.
tail section with a cylindrical power riveted shell designed to accommodate the motor unit, consisting of twin-propulsion engine RD120 and quad steering motor RD8.
«Zenit»: the rocket and its specifications
During operation of launch vehicles "Zenith" of all types were carried out starting 82, most of the past completely successful (69 starts), 4 - partially unsuccessful, the remaining abnormally.
- Missile length: 57-59,6 m.
- Number of stages 2 or 3.
- maximum diameter of 3.9 m.
- Payload: 15 tons of marine systems for launch, 13.7 tons - forterrestrial systems.
- Starting weight: 445-462 m.
Despite the example of successful cooperation of the international program "Zenith", the missile is currently not produced due to the unstable situation in Ukraine.