Kazakhstan - one of the leading economic partners of Russia.Both countries have close historical economic ties, which can be even more reinforced by the further integration of states within the EAEC.Kazakhstan - the most important partner of the Russian Federation regarding the exchange of industrial products.What are the specifics of producing sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan?
leading industries of Kazakhstan
Industry of Kazakhstan is represented by several major segments:
- the coal industry;
- fuel and petrochemical industry;
- food industry;
- light industry;
- production of construction materials.
Consider them more specifics.
Coal industry Coal industry
Kazakhstan - among the biggest industries, not only in Kazakhstan but also in the whole economic area EAEC.The country - among the leaders in terms of coal production per capita, as well as reserves.The largest of its reserves are concentrated in Central Kazakhstan, as well as in the Northeast states.Much of the coal is exported.
According to experts, Kazakhstan is experiencing some shortage of coal belonging to the category of high-quality, most often used in the municipal sector, as well as enterprises, which operate on the appropriate type of boiler.To cover the needs of the economy in this type of coal possible expansion of production capacity in the relevant segment.In particular, this can be increased intensity of production in the Pavlodar region.Coals occurring here are characterized by high grade, easy to enrich, the costs to obtain them from the depths are relatively small.
among the leading industries of Kazakhstan - nonferrous metallurgy.Kazakhstan produces high quality copper, zinc, titanium and various rare earth metals.Products may take the form of hire.RK - among the world leaders in the production of copper, the main part of it is exported to Western Europe.Kazakhstan - a significant player in the global gold market.There are more than 170 fields.
Metallurgical Industry of Kazakhstan developed also in the segment of production from iron ore.RK - among the world leaders in terms of the respective breeds.A significant part of the reserves is classified as readily available.The main volumes of iron ore mined in Kazakhstan exported.
Metallurgy - among the industries of Kazakhstan, which has established very close ties with Russian companies.This is largely due to the fact that much of the relevant communications had been established even in the Soviet Union.Between enterprises of Kazakhstan SSR and the RSFSR, so does the active exchange of raw materials, metals and workpieces.In many areas of the respective communication is still in effect.There are prospects for further strengthening - taking into account the fact that Russia and Kazakhstan are now likely to be even more integrated economically within the EAEC.
fuel and petrochemical industry
Kazakhstan's oil industry - the other major sector of the economy of the state.In Kazakhstan produced a wide range of products of the corresponding type - gasoline, diesel and fuel oil, kerosene for aviation and many other types of oil.This sector is adjacent to the development of the petrochemical segment.The country produces various types of plastics, fibers, tires.
feature of the oil industry in Kazakhstan - is that it is an example of the successful integration of public and private enterprises.Fuel industry of Kazakhstan is represented not only by large corporations, but also small and medium enterprises.Active participation in the development of the oil industry of Kazakhstan take as many foreign investors.Fuel industry in Kazakhstan remains attractive for businesses from Russia and other states EAEC, the western countries.
Mechanical engineering - another example of the important industries in Kazakhstan.The state produces equipment for various applications, machine tools, pumps.Machine-building enterprises of Kazakhstan actively cooperate with foreign investors - Russian, Western, representatives of the EAEC - for attracting investments.Mechanical engineering in Kazakhstan grew palpable pace in the mid-2000s, some decline was during the crisis of 2008-2009.But the difficulty was overcome, and now the relevant industry - including stable segments of the economy of the state.
Engineering in Kazakhstan - an industry that has great prospects due to the presence of sufficiently large capacity - from the times of the Soviet Union, which are not adequately involved.Now the share of the relevant industry in Kazakhstan's economy is small, it is several times inferior to, inter alia, the Russian indicators.However, subject to the successful attraction of investments may significantly increase the dynamics of the output of mechanical engineering Kazakhstan enterprises.
materials production Production of building materials - another example of a successful industry, which is represented by industry in Kazakhstan.The state produces cement, pipes, roofing slate, linoleum, various panels, ceramics and other products.The bulk of the building materials enterprises of Kazakhstan produced by the national resource base.
Issue materials in Kazakhstan - are among the most dynamic sectors.So, from 2008 to 2013 the production of the corresponding type of product in Kazakhstan, according to some, has doubled.Lower, in turn, the company's dependence on imports of the Republic of Kazakhstan.Government and business have identified new targets for further development of the industry.It is calculated that in the framework of existing innovative programs will support leading enterprises segment.
Chemical Industry Chemical Industry of Kazakhstan also significant for the economy of the state.Among its leading segments - production of phosphorus.According to some estimates, Kazakhstan - one of the leaders of the CIS market in its release.Also, there are large enterprises, engaged in the production of chromium compounds, paints and varnishes.
structure of exports of chemical enterprises of Kazakhstan is that it is dominated by products of inorganic chemistry, characterized by low rates of technological limit.Also preserved tangible Kazakhstan's dependence on imports of chemical products.It prevails in turn, high-tech products - fertilizers, detergents and plastics.Thus, the chemical industry of Kazakhstan has significant potential for modernization.In particular - in terms of import substitution.
Food Industry Food Industry in Kazakhstan - are among the most dynamic segments of the economy.The prevailing share in the relevant industry belongs to grain processing, production of milk, bread, meat, fruits and vegetables growing, active oil and fat enterprises.Considerable needs of the Republic of Kazakhstan to import food.This could prejudge prospects for further growth of the segment as a means of import substitution.
significant role in the development of the food industry also plays Kazakhstan government.Thus, the Kazakh authorities developed large-scale program to support domestic producers.This is mainly subsidies, reduction of interest rates on corporate loans, assistance in acquiring fixed assets.It is expected that during the implementation of the relevant initiatives by government agencies in support of the business will be invested several trillion tenge.It is also the adjustment of certain provisions of the tax laws in order to optimize the interaction of the food companies and the state in terms of budget allocations.
Light industry Light industry of Kazakhstan also developed.Basically it is presented by the enterprises operating in the cotton sector.Studies show that the needs of the domestic market of Kazakhstan is much higher than the current dynamics of the release of the goods of light industry.About 90% of the relevant products in Kazakhstan is imported.At the same time, in order to solve the problem of import substitution is necessary, as the economists say, to ensure the highest level of competitiveness of the industry.Resources for this, of course.The fact that the light industry of Kazakhstan is characterized by a high level with modern equipment, which is supplied by leading global brands, while many other segments of the industry depreciation of the funds is big enough.
mentioned problems characterizing some producing sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan, at the same time does not remain without attention of the government and business, she decided - along with other difficulties that characterize the industry in Kazakhstan.
consider this aspect, as well as prospects for further development of the productive sectors of Kazakhstan.
Problems and prospects of the industry of Kazakhstan
Above we noted that the industry of Kazakhstan in many segments characterized by a rather high level of depreciation of assets.This problem is recognized by the business community and the state, to develop measures for its effective resolution.Another difficulty that characterizes the manufacturing sector of Kazakhstan - a relatively low capacity utilization.It primarily affects on productivity.The overall level of technological industrial enterprises of Kazakhstan is estimated as inferior advanced manufacturing in Western countries.
plan to solve the mentioned problems in a number of major initiatives - such as, for example, the government program "Performance 2020".She aims to support existing businesses and the opening of new production facilities.Through this program, companies representing various industries of Kazakhstan, can take advantage of state support.To do this, they need to show that they have, firstly, a strategy development, and secondly - the desire and resources capable of ensuring compliance of state tasks to modernize the economy.
tasks on Industry RK
The government of Kazakhstan is a number of urgent tasks, without which the effective development of industry in Kazakhstan is not easy to implement.We study their specificity.
First of all, the government should form a long-term policy in the sphere of industry, which should focus on initiatives not only governments, but also business, academia.These activities should be directed towards structural modernization of industrial enterprises operating in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Another important aspect of the development of industry in Kazakhstan - technological modernization.It is expected that it will be carried out simultaneously on several dozens of large enterprises.Will analyze the current progress of the modernization, possible difficulties in its implementation, and on the basis of the data will be corrected the program "Performance 2020".A significant role in the implementation of this activity will play academic institutions.
Modernization of Kazakhstan's industry also requires training of new staff - especially in the field of management.Competence management - a key factor in the success of any enterprise.Fixed assets of high-tech - it's just one of the conditions.It is also important that the head of the firm is responsible and highly professional managers.Similarly, the issue of training of qualified personnel is also in direct production sites in the enterprise.Wanted experienced qualified engineers capable of providing an effective involvement of the updated assets.We need qualified to perform specific industrial problems.
For successful implementation of the "Performance 2020" in Kazakhstan is necessary to consolidate and efficient allocation of financial resources.The budgetary burden on the State in this respect should be reasonable, so as to attract investors will also private businesses - operating in the Republic of Kazakhstan, Russia and other states of the EAEC, the western countries.
Many researchers believe that the modernization of industry of Kazakhstan will also require further improvement of the legal and regulatory framework governing the activity of the enterprises of the corresponding sphere.This can include a variety of aspects of the business - making civil-legal agreements, contracts with foreign partners, investment agreements, intellectual rights, and so on. D.
Experts expect that the authorities of the Republic of Kazakhstan will ensure the development of the industrial potential not only in the traditional production areascountries, but also in the other parts of it, which is that the concentration of industrial enterprises is relatively small, but the potential for the construction of new facilities there is a high.Thus, it is expected that the development will not only industry in Central Kazakhstan, but also enterprises in the regions, yet lagging behind in terms of the number of industrial sites and the volume of their products.