Russian Federation - a country which ranks first in the area of the territory and the ninth - in terms of population.It is a country which has passed the way from disparate principalities to a candidate for the superpower.How took place the establishment of the political, economic and military colossus?
In this article we look at the main dates in the history of Russia.We will see the development of the country from the first mention of it to the end of the twentieth century.
IX - X century
first time the word "Russia" is mentioned in 860 in connection with the siege of Constantinople (Constantinople), and the looting of the surrounding area.Researchers estimate that in a raid involving more than eight thousand people.The Byzantines did not expect an attack by the Black Sea, so were not able to give a fitting rebuff."Rus gone unpunished," - says the chronicler.
next important date was the 862 year.In the history of Russia is one of the most significant events.According to the "Tale of Bygone Years", it was at the time, invited the representatives of the Slavic tribes in the reign of Rurik.
The chronicle says that they are tired of the constant bickering and infighting that only alien ruler could put an end to.
Like the 862, in the history of Russia has become an important next - 863rd.This year, according to the chroniclers, created the Slavic alphabet - Cyrillic.It is from this time begins the official written history of Russia.
In 882, Prince Oleg, Rurik's successor, won the Kiev and makes it "the capital city."This ruler has done a lot for the state.He began to unite the tribes went to the Khazars, having beaten many lands.Now northerners drevlyans, radzimichy pay tribute not Kaganate and the Kiev prince.
We are considering only the main dates in the history of Russia.Therefore we dwell only on some of the key events.
So the X century was marked by a strong expansion of Russ in neighboring countries and tribes.So, Igor went to the Pechenegs (920) and Constantinople (944 year).Prince Svyatoslav defeated the Khazar Khanate in 965, thus greatly strengthened the position of Kievan Rus in the south and southeast.
In 970 Kievan Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovych becomes.He, along with his uncle Dobrynia whose image was later reflected in the epic hero, going to be like the Bulgarians.He managed to defeat the tribes of the Serbs and Bulgarians on the Danube, so that the Union has been concluded.
Next Prince of Kiev, is involved in a campaign against the Byzantines, Bulgarians.This led to the defeat of the past and strengthen the Bulgarians in the area.
However, during the campaigns mentioned Prince permeated by Christianity.Earlier, his grandmother, Princess Olga, the first to adopt this belief and has been misunderstood environment.Now Volodymyr the Great decided to baptize the whole state.
Thus, in 988, a series of rituals designed to baptize most tribes.Those who refused to voluntarily change the faith, forced to this force.
last important date in the tenth century is considered the construction of the Tithe Church.It is through this building in Kiev finally consolidate Christianity at the state level.
eleventh century was marked by a large number of armed conflicts between the prince.Immediately after the death of Vladimir Svyatoslavovich start infighting.
This disruption lasted until 1019, when the throne sits in Kiev Prince Yaroslav, who was later nicknamed the Wise.He ruled for thirty-five years.It is noteworthy that in the years of his reign Kievan Rus almost reaches the level of European countries.
As we speak briefly about the history of Russia, the most important dates of the eleventh century, connected with the reign of Yaroslav (in the first half of the century) and the period of unrest (in the second half of the century).
So, from 1019 until his death in 1054, Prince Yaroslav the Wise is one of the most famous arches - "Truth Yaroslav".It is the oldest part of the "Russian Truth".
In the five years since 1030, he is building in Chernigov Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral.
in the capital as in 1037 begins the construction of the famous temple - St. Sophia Cathedral.It was completed in 1041.
After a campaign against Byzantium, in 1043, is building a similar Yaroslav Cathedral in Novgorod.
death of the prince of Kiev has begun the fight for capital among his sons.From 1054 to 1068 the rules of Izyaslav.Next, with the help of his revolt succeeds Polotsk Vseslav.In the epics he referred to as the Volga.
Given that this ruler held more pagan views in matters of faith, his folk tales ascribe properties werewolf.In the epics he becomes the wolf, the hawk.The official story behind it the nickname stuck Wizard.
lists the main dates in the history of the eleventh century Russia, it is worth mentioning the creation of "Truth Yaroslav" in 1072 and "Izbornik Svyatoslav" in 1073.The latter contains a description of the lives of the saints, as well as their important teachings.
More interesting document is the "Russian Truth".It consists of two parts.The first written during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, and the second - in 1072.This collection contains the rules of criminal, procedural, commercial and inheritance law.
last event, which is worth mentioning in the framework of the eleventh century, was the Council of Liubech princes.It marked the beginning of the fragmentation of the Old Russian state.It was agreed that everyone should only manage their patrimony.
Oddly enough, but important role in the reunification of ancient princes played Polovtsy.Talking about the key dates of the twelfth century Russian history, not to mention trips to these nomads in 1103, 1107 and 1111, respectively.These three military campaigns rallied the Eastern Slavs and created the prerequisites for voknyazheniya Vladimir Monomakh in 1113.He was succeeded by son Mstislav.
During the reign of the princes of the final edited "The Tale of Bygone Years", and also there is growing discontent among the people, which resulted in uprisings in 1113 and 1127's.
After the death of Yaroslav the Wise is gradually drifting political history of Europe and the history of Russia.Dates and events of the twelfth century is fully confirmed.
While there was a struggle for power, caused by the collapse of the Kievan state in Western Europe, Spain and the union held several crusades.
In Russia was happening next.In 1136 as a result of the revolt and the expulsion of Vsevolod Mstislavovich established republic in Novgorod.
In 1147, chronicles first mention the name of Moscow.It is from this time begins the gradual rise of the city, which is destined to later become the capital of a united state.
end of the twelfth century was marked by an even greater fragmentation of powers and principalities of weakening.All this has led to the fact that Russia is deprived of freedom, getting into the yoke of the Tatars.
As these events took place in the thirteenth century, we'll talk about them on.
In this century, temporarily interrupted by the independent history of Russia.Dates table hikes Batu, which is listed below, as well as maps of battles with the Mongols point to the failure of many princes in matters of military operations.
|Council Mongol khans decided to start a campaign against Russia, an army led by Batu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan||1235|
|defeat of the Mongols Volga Bulgaria||1236|
|Submission Polovtsian and the beginning of a campaign to Russia||1237|
|siege and capture of Ryazan||December 1237|
|Fall Kolomna and Moscow||January 1238|
|Taking Mongols Vladimir||3-7 February 1238|
|defeat of Russian troops on the riverCity and death of Vladimir prince||4 March 1238|
|fall of the city of Torzhok, the return of the Mongols in the steppe||March 1238|
|siege began Kozielska||March 25, 1238|
|Rest of the Mongolian army in the Don steppes||Summer 1238|
|Fall Murom, Nizhny Novgorod, Gorokhovets||autumn 1238|
|invasion of Batu in the southern Russian principalities fall Putivel, Pereyaslavl and Chernigov||summer 1239|
|siege and capture of Kiev by the Mongols||5-6 September 1240|
are several stories where city dwellers could give a heroic resistance to the invaders (eg Kozel'sk).But it does not mention any event, when the princes defeated the Mongolian troops.
relatively Kozelsk - it's just a unique story.Hike invincible army of Batu Khan, who from 1237 in 1240 ruined by the North-Eastern Russia, was stopped near the walls of a small fortress.
This town was the capital of the principality on the ground of the former tribe Vyatichi.Scientists estimate that the number of its defenders no more than four hundred people.However, the Mongols were able to take a fortress only after seven weeks of siege and the loss of more than four thousand soldiers.
noteworthy that the defense kept the general public, without a prince and governor.At this time in Kozelsk "rules" the grandson of Mstislav, twelve Basil.However, the townspeople decided to protect him and defend the city.
After the capture of the fortress by the Mongols it was razed to the ground, and all the inhabitants killed.They spared neither infants nor the infirm elderly.
After this battle the rest of the important dates in the history of Russia related to the Mongol invasion, relate exclusively to the southern principalities.
So, in 1238, a little earlier defense Kozelsk, the battle takes place near the river Kolomna.In 1239, it was looted and Chernigov Pereyaslavl.And in the fall of 1240 and Kiev.
In 1243 the Mongol state is formed - the Golden Horde.Now Russian princes are obliged to take a "shortcut to reign" from khans.
In northern lands at that time is a completely different picture.In Russia looming Swedish and German troops.They are opposed by the Prince of Novgorod, Alexander Nevsky.
In 1240 he defeated the Swedes on the Neva River, and in 1242 utterly breaks the German knights (the so-called Battle of the Ice).
In the second half of the thirteenth century, occur several punitive expeditions of the Mongols to Russia.They were directed against unwanted princes who have not received the label on the board.So, in 1252 it was Nevryueva army, and 1293-m Khan Duden destroyed fourteen major settlements of North-Eastern Russia.
view of complex events and the gradual transition of management in the northern lands, in 1299, Patriarch moved from Kiev to Vladimir.
more significant date in the history of Russia belong to the fourteenth century.In 1325, he came to power Ivan Kalita.He begins to collect all the principalities into one state.Since 1340 to join the Moscow some land, and in 1328 became Grand Duke of Kalita.
In 1326 Vladimir Metropolitan Peter brings residence in Moscow as a more promising city.
which began in 1347 in Western Europe, the plague ("Black Death") comes in 1352-m and up to Russia.It destroyed a lot of people.
mentioning important dates in the history of Russia, especially worth looking at developments related to Moscow.In 1359 the throne goes Dmitry Donskoy.For two years, starting with the 1367-th, there is the construction of the stone Kremlin in Moscow.It is because of this it later called "white stone".
By the end of the fourteenth century Russia finally out from under the domination of the Golden Horde khans.So, in this way highlight is the battle near the river Vozhi (1378) and the Battle of Kulikovo (1380).This victory showed the Tatars in the north is beginning to emerge powerful state, which will not be under someone else's authority.
However, the Golden Horde did not want to lose that simple tributaries.In 1382 Khan Tokhtamysh gathers a large army and ruining Moscow.
It was the last catastrophe, associated with the Mongols.Although Russia finally freed itself from the yoke of only a century later.But this time no one bothered her borders.
Moreover, in 1395 Tamerlan definitively destroys the Golden Horde.But the yoke over Russia continued to exist.
Key dates in the history of Russia in the fifteenth century concerned mainly land consolidation into a single Moscow state.
first half of the century took place in the infighting.Over the years the authorities were Basil I and Basil II the Dark, Yuri and Dmitry Shemyaka Zvenigorod.
events of the first half of the fifteenth century, a bit reminiscent of 1917 in the history of Russia.It followed the revolution and the civil war has identified many specific warlords, gang leaders, who were later killed by Moscow.
reason strife lay in the choice of ways to strengthen the state.Outwardly, the political activities of the interim rulers connected with the Tatars and Lithuanians, who sometimes raided.Some princes relied on the support of the East, the other longer trust the West.
Moral decades of strife proved that won those who did not hope for external support, and strengthen the country from within.Thus, the result was the consolidation of many small crown lands under the authority of the Grand Duke of Moscow.
An important step was the establishment of the autocephaly of the Russian Orthodox Church.Now here we are proclaimed Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia.That is, the relationship has been destroyed by the Patriarch of Constantinople and Byzantium.
during the feudal wars and religious misunderstandings occur in 1458 the Moscow branch of the Archdiocese of Kiev.
discord between the princes ended accession of John III.He won in 1471 in Novgorod Shelonsky battle, and 1478th Novgorod finally joins the Moscow principality.
In 1480 there was one of the most significant events of the fifteenth century.It is known in the annals called Standing on the Ugra.This is a very interesting story that contemporaries considered "mystical intercession of the Virgin."Ahmad Khan gathered a large army and opposed by Ivan III, who was allied with the Crimean khan.
But the battle never came.After a long standing armies against each other, both the Army reversed.Researchers today have found that it was caused by the weakness of the Great Horde, and the actions of subversive groups in the rear Achmat.
Thus, in 1480 the Moscow Principality became a fully sovereign state.
similar in importance began in 1552 in the history of Russia.We'll talk about it later.
in 1497 was officially adopted and approved the "Code of Law", a set of laws for all residents of powers.
sixteenth century is characterized by a powerful process of centralization of the country.Join in the reign of Vasily III of Moscow, Pskov (1510), Smolensk (1514) and Ryazan (1521).For the first time in 1517 referred to the Boyar Duma as an organ of government.
With the death of Vasily III begins a small decline of Muscovy.Rules at this time Elena Glinskaya, which were replaced by Boyar power.But I put an end to arbitrariness grown up the son of the deceased prince, Ivan Vasilyevich.
He ascended the throne in 1547.Ivan the Terrible started with foreign policy.In the state, in fact, before 1565, the prince relied on the Zemsky Sobor and the boyars.Over the eighteen years he was able to connect a lot of territory.
1552 is notable in the history of Russia.Then Ivan the Terrible seizes Kazan Khanate and attaches to the Moscow State.Besides him, it was conquered areas such as Astrakhan Khanate (1556), the city of Polotsk (1562).
Siberian Khan in 1555 pleaded vassal of Ivan.However, in 1563 his successor on the throne of Khan Kuchum breaks all relations with Moscow.
After one and a half decades, the gains of the Grand Duke pays a look at the internal situation in the country.In 1565 it established the oprichnina and start persecution and terror.All the knights of the family, who began to get a job for the authorities destroyed and their property confiscated.Executions continued until 1572.
In 1582 Ermak begins his famous march to Siberia, which lasted a year.
In 1583 signed a peace with Sweden, the latter returns all the lands conquered during the war.
In 1584 dies Ivan and actually comes to power Boris Godunov.The real king, he became only in 1598, after the death of Fyodor, son of Ivan the Terrible.