Even before the serial production of T-62 tanks, the chief designer of the Ural carriage plant LN Kartsev was asked to improve the model by setting it a new engine, more powerful, and more promising chassis.It appeared as T-72 tank.Characteristics of the vehicle celebrated it as a large armored vehicle.
the summer of 1961 were built the first two copies of the tank, and they were tested in an accelerated mode - first the plant, then at the site.Object differs modernize, but in spite of all its advantages, the plant was not received official permission for the production of a new tank.Year after year, to make certain changes in the model:
- first thought was the crew of the T-72, which consisted of three - commander, gunner and driver.
- tank was equipped with a cannon with autoloader and armor protection on the basis of the scheme SRI steel.
- Chassis models planned weighing no more than 40 tonnes.
But these changes are not accepted, only two were left side gearboxes.
layout of the tank T-72 - tank, has a classic design when the power pack is located at the stern.Management is focused in the forward part of the vehicle, here are located the fuel tank, a tank-rack, guard monitoring devices of the driver, electrical.
Department of Management consists of the seat mechanics, who manages the T-72 tank.Above the driver's seat there is a hatch.The mine armor plate mounted device that allows to monitor the situation.The driver sits on the motion that the judicious design of the seats in the bottom of the tank.
crew compartment in the tank is left in the middle of the hull and the tower, which is separated from the power pack in a special partition.The sophisticated design provides easy movement of crew members from offices to offices.Comfort and ergonomics - the main differences, which boasts a T-72 tank.Characteristic of him as a combat vessel is also impressive:
- tank is equipped with smoothbore gun in the turret of 125 mm, automatic charging and fire control instruments.
- the right of the gun is equipped with a place commander and gunner seated on the left.
- gun on the right side there is a PKT machine gun, and above it on spacers keeps the base pipe rangefinder sight.
- Workplace commander attractive equipment: it consists of the rotary stopper gun, tank vertical guidance, radio, a special apparatus through which outside socket connects the landing, the propeller drive the commander's turret.
- Tower commander covered with a cover plate torsion.
- commander's turret is equipped with two observation devices TNP-160 and commanding device TKN-3.
fighting compartment is also equipped with instruments and mechanisms that provide the ease of use of the tank.
Aft has the power pack.The engine of the T-72 is located on the port side, and between it and the wall for the motor is cooling system, oil filter, expansion tank valve.On the right side mounted air purifier.The housing has a rear plate, which is the cooling system.It is also equipped with an additional power pack and the main oil tank, which contribute to engine lubrication.Power office closed lid.Fuel tank T-72 for 100 km following:
- the motion on the ground - 260-450 liters;
- on paved roads - 240 l.
One of the most popular Soviet tanks - T-72 tank.Characteristic of it as a battle would be incomplete if we did not describe the characteristics of the housing.The case of this model - it's a tough case, that of welded armor plates.Here are placed the bow, side feed, bottom, walls and ventilation of the motor, as well as the roof of the power pack.
frontal sheet - a multi-layer composite barrier of steel and fiberglass, the thickness of which provides a wear-resistant coating.The sides of the body are strengthened by vertical armor plate, in the middle of the augmented security bar.Their purpose - to increase the internal volume of the body and set them on the tower.The entire perimeter of the sides are welded brackets, which are mounted on guide wheels.
T-72 - a popular Soviet tank, which inspired respect around the world.Feed him a stern hull armor plate.As protection Fan mounted partition.It is a volute equipped with removable front and side sheets.The housing has a cooling fan, and the main purpose of the partition - to organize the flow of air.The sides of the tank supplemented by on-board screens, having a thickness of 3 mm and made of aluminum alloy.To save the state of the tank while driving on difficult terrain, the screens can be put to the stowed position - draw in their dust to the side panel.When the T-72 tank in battle dust shields can be deployed forward at an angle of 60 degrees.
How does the tower?
used to create it shaped castings of armored steel, welded on top of her roof, as well as the head, that protect the base pipe rangefinder sight.Tower of different monolithic design, wall thickness varies.The front end is equipped with a porthole, which is set gun side surfaces - arc cheeks, which are important for the booking of the shell.
right of the presence of guns provided loopholes, which is coaxial machine gun.To the left of the gun has a bracket, which is mounted night sight illuminator combined with a pipe through which is fed to the gun electric drive.The left half of the roof hatch has a base, which is the gunner.Tower rotating hydraulic and manual mechanism.All that distinguishes the T-72 tank, which is characteristic suggests armored fighting qualities.
Turret equipped with smoothbore gun D-81TM, paired him with another gun, and they are stabilized in two planes guidance.The barrel gun - a tube that is connected to the casing, coupling, breech mechanism and flushing.It, in turn, consists of six nozzles.Shutter gun semi-automatic mode of operation is different.Firing range of the T-72 the following:
- by firing armor-piercing ammunition, and cumulative distance of 4000 m;
- using high-explosive projectiles its value reaches 5000 m;
- when shooting at night it is 800 m;
- if the shells are fired side level with high-explosive shells, and range can be up to 9400 m.
It should be noted that the automatic charging of the gun battle is different rate of up to 8 rounds per minute, with manual charging of - in the 1-2 shotminute.
firing range of the T-72 is provided monocular stereoscopic rangefinder sight, equipped with additional independent stabilization of the visual field.Through the sight range of the target is measured in the range 1000-4000 m with an accuracy of 3-5 percent.If firing is conducted at night, a special night sight with the IR illuminator based filter.
Commander's Tower is equipped with anti-aircraft guns, which allows you to shoot at air and ground targets.In the case of the T-72 tank TTX are: air targets at long-range shooting is at a distance of 1500 meters, on ground - up to 2000 m. The anti-aircraft tank is:
- from NSV 12.7 mm;
- cradle with recoil device;
- zenith sight;
- handle, helps to build an instrument both horizontally and vertically;
- shop for shells;
- balancing mechanism.
One of the most powerful Russian combat armored vehicles of all time - the T-72.Armament assumes the following shells:
- machine AKMS 7.62 mm;
- signal pistols;
- 10 hand grenades.
tank has biplanar electrohydraulic stabilizer arms, which is combined with an optical sight-rangefinder.The main objectives of this complex following:
- automatically hold a gun and a machine gun in a certain position during the movement of the tank.
- Bridging stabilized gun and a machine gun, gradually adjusting the rate guidance.
- Bridging-stabilized gun in a horizontal plane.
- create target designation from the tank commander to the gunner.
- Emergency rotate the tower of the driver.
With stabilizer provided the angular velocity on the basis of which induced the gun vertically automatically.On the part of the tank ammunition - 39 shots for the gun, 2000 rounds of ammunition for the machine gun PKT, 300 rounds of ammunition to the machine, 12 rounds of ammunition for the signal pistol and 300 rounds of ammunition for the anti-aircraft machine gun.
on the T-72 has a range of electromechanical, which automatically charges the gun.It consists of a rotating conveyor, hoist cassette mechanism removing pallets, loading rod, the rotary stopper gun storage and remote control.
Soviet Battle Tank is equipped with a rotating conveyor, which is mounted on the machine and includes a frame, an electromechanical actuator, flooring, window closing mechanism with the issuance of doors, lock and manual transmission.In frame 22 placed cassettes, he is a solid welded construction.The tape is welded and the two pipes need to accommodate different types of shots.
Device T-72 requires a modified powerplant.It is a diesel engine with 780 hp, which is supplemented by liquid cooling system, and drive a centrifugal supercharger.Engine weight is 980 kg, it is installed in the power department.Multi-fuel engine can run on different brands of diesel, petrol and kerosene.But the main type of fuel - diesel.The power supply system of the engine of the tank consists of 4 domestic and five external fuel tanks.
to protect the clean air that enters the cylinders of the engine, the tank is equipped with two-stage optional air purifier, which removes dust from the dust collector.Purification is performed in several cycles, and then purified to 99.8 percent air enters the engine.
Device T-72 suggests the presence of lubrication and cooling.The lubrication system is circulating, and combined, and the cooling system - liquid and sealed, it is supplemented by forced circulation.The special heating system heats up the engine and maintains its systems before launch.
Tank T-72 is equipped with a manual transmission with hydraulic control, including a guitar and two transmissions.Guitar called a reduction gearbox, which transmits torque to the transmission.
Chassis and equipment
Combat weight of the T-72 is 44.5 tons, while the undercarriage - a bi-six rubber road wheels and three uni-roller drive sprocket rear position, the steering wheel to the crank mechanism.The tank has an individual torsion bar suspension, which increases hydraulic shock absorbers and six road wheels.The caterpillars are small units with the number of trucks in their 97.
From options on the tank can be noted radio and intercom system, designed for four subscribers.The radio station operates as a transceiver and phone, providing range of up to 20 km.The transceiver 1261 operates at the operating frequency, wherein the transmission and reception of signals are conducted at a common frequency.
Despite the fact that the weight of the T-72 was impressive, it was equipped with additional systems that protected armored vehicle of weapons of mass destruction.Systems are able to protect the tank and its internal equipment from the shock wave radiation from a nuclear explosion, ensuring the safety of the crew under the influence of intoxicating substances, or biological weapons.
protection from shock wave runs crafted armor, as well as the quality seal.Inside the tank using a special reliable material, with the fighting compartment and the driver's compartment is securely sealed.The protection system acts as a light and sound alarms, controls the level of radiation and the pressure inside the tank and the presence of toxic substances outside it.
Fire system is a three-liter containers which are filled with extinguishant and three pipelines that connect the tanks and offices, and nine thermal sensors.A special system of repeated action serves as a reliable protection from the smoke.It runs on diesel fuel.
Additional equipment T-72 tanks can be noted for underwater driving system, which allows to overcome water obstacles at a depth of 5 m and a width of up to 1000 m. The structure of this equipment includes life jackets, gas masks, designed for all crew members.
Modifications of the T-72
All the years of manufacture the tank was introduced in eight basic models: T-72, T-72M, T-72M1, T-72C and their varieties.In addition, it is actively sold abroad in countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, East Germany, Hungary and Bulgaria.As of 2007, these armored vehicles were in service a number of countries - Algeria, Vietnam, Libya, Macedonia, Kyrgyzstan, and many others.The T-72 was used extensively in many countries as a basis for a large number of engineering, special and military vehicles.
T-72 - a Ural tank that has long been considered one of the most powerful and reliable not only in the USSR but also in the world.Upgraded versions are still being made in many countries, while constantly improving the management system and power equipment.