Knowledge - this is a very broad concept that has several definitions, different forms, levels and characteristics.What is the distinguishing feature of school knowledge?What areas do they cover?And why do we need to check knowledge?Let's start with the basic concept.
are four basic definition:
- knowledge - a kind, in which there are human activities aimed at knowledge.
- In broad, general sense knowledge is called personal, subjective view of reality individual enclosed in the form of concepts and definitions.
- In particular, the narrow sense of knowledge - it is reliable information that helps solve the problem.
- knowledge of any object - a system of information about it, helps you use the subject to achieve the desired results.
knowledge does not necessarily relate to science, something difficult to assimilate and perception.That, as you wish to hold a spoon, you know.
forms of knowledge
There are three basic forms of knowledge: conceptual, symbolic and art-model.
first in the history of knowledge is considered a game of human knowledge.It has to train and develop character, makes it possible to identify the personal qualities of the person.
kinds of knowledge as there are several:
- scientific knowledge;
- non-scientific knowledge;
- common sense (ordinary knowledge);
- religious knowledge.
scientific knowledge tend to understand the truth, describe, explain and understand the various facts, processes and phenomena.Their main characteristics - the universality, objectivity and validity.
Unscientific knowledge exist in any society, are subject to its principles, laws, bear the stereotypes of this group of people.Otherwise, they are called esotericism.
ordinary knowledge - the basic human, they determine how a person behaves, what actions does help him navigate the reality.This kind of knowledge was in the early stages of development of human society.
By nature knowledge can be procedural and declarative.
first - active, they give an idea about the means to acquire new knowledge, are the methods, algorithms, system.For example, the method of brainstorming.
second - so to speak, passive, a system of ideas about something, facts, language concepts.For example, at a traffic light three colors: red, yellow and green.
more knowledge to share scientific and non-scientific.Scientific knowledge - it is empirical knowledge gained by practical or theoretical - abstract theory assumptions.
non-scientific area of expertise includes such knowledge as:
- parascientific (incompatible with the existing epistemological standard);
- pseudoscientific (growing field of conjectures, myths, prejudices);
- quasi-scientific (developing during periods of rigid ideology of totalitarianism, based on violent methods);
- unscientific (deliberately distorting the existing knowledge, aspiring to utopia, developed during periods of social instability);
- pseudoscientific (based on well-known theories and legends);
- ordinary, everyday (basic knowledge about personality reality, constantly replenished);
- personality (depends on the ability of the individual).
During training, the child masters the knowledge, learning to apply them in practice (skills) and automates this process (skills).
Knowledge Base received the students, it is a system, a set of knowledge and skills acquired in training.
As part of school knowledge - is a system of laws of any part of the real world (domain), which allows the student to solve the specific problems in front of him.That is the knowledge you include such terms and concepts as:
structured knowledge - this means that there are links between them, which characterize the degree of understanding of the basic laws and principles for this domain.
They interpretable, that is, they can explain, demonstrate, justify.
knowledge linked to various blocks of topics, functions and so on. D.
They also are active - they produce new knowledge.
individual can preserve knowledge (remember), to play, to check, update, translate, interpret.
knowledge necessary for a person to solve a specific task, to cope with the problem, that is, he must know what to do to get an answer, the result.
Item application of knowledge in practice - skills.Otherwise, it is the development of ways to perform an action that is provided, supported by some kind of knowledge.These people (the student) uses, converts, summarizes, if necessary revised.
This ability student, driven to automatism.When the action deliberately chosen to deal with this kind of problem, repeated again and again, and the result is they get true success, it produced a kind of reflex.
student, analyzing the task, choose a way to solve it as soon as possible.
teacher needs to know how well the children have learned the material subject, to continue their education further.
This requires regular checking of knowledge.Its main task - to increase the level of knowledge of the student, not humiliate him, to catch on ignorance of the material, no skills.Check should help the teacher to find out how well children learn school knowledge.
In the history of education in Russia was a lot of bad experiences the establishment of the verification process of understanding the fact they were based on humiliation, intimidation, were subjective.
Now we have a five-point rating system of knowledge.
The general concept of this section - control: identification, measurement, assessment of knowledge;their inspection - only a portion of the control.
also "control" is a concept of "evaluation" - the means to stimulate the individual and "assessment" - the process of identifying the level.
Monitoring should be objective, systematic, clear and consist of:
- preliminary check at the beginning of the year;
- check after each passed subject (current);
- again, reinforcing the resulting body of knowledge;
- checks on sections of the course (periodic);
checks must be performed three basic functions:
- controlling (verification of knowledge before the next stage of training);
- training (implemented when working in a group);
- brings up (stimulate self-activity, self-confidence).
Languages other countries, peoples, carried by a person is not, it has always been a plus.Man who knows the foreign language is isolated from the rest.This helps to build a successful career, to travel, to develop memory and so on. N.
person can have different merits, degrees, but the knowledge of the two (five, twelve) languages will always be a separate line item in the list of his regalia and cause a special respect.
At different times over Russia welcomed the knowledge of French, German, English and Chinese (for now).
Learning foreign languages has long been included in the educational system.The child can choose the language (s), who wants to study at the beginning of the course and deepen their knowledge optional.
also actively developing private clubs and schools that are exploring a variety of (from top to rare and neglected) languages.Some lessons are conducted by native speakers, and the holidays are visiting school with "immersion".At such events, it is not accepted to speak Russian, communicating solely through the target language.
There is an international scale, which determines the level of knowledge of foreign language students.
- Highest - Fluency in written and spoken language - Proficient level.
- When a person speaks, reads and writes, allowing small errors - this is the level Advanced.
- having a large vocabulary, the ability to engage in debate, to read any texts fluently and understand the content of some inaccuracies, the man got up to Upper Intermediate level.When
- learned basic vocabulary, but there is a good listening comprehension, reading and writing skills are quite high, - Intermediate.
- If people can understand it, which they speak for him (slowly and clearly), a lot of time to build a grammatical phrases, vocabulary it also makes it impossible to communicate freely - a Pre-Intermediate level.
- When the knowledge base, only the basic grammatical forms, meager vocabulary, reading and writing skills are not worked out - in front of us a person with knowledge of Elementary level.
- When a student just starting to learn the language, does not yet have a clear understanding of the grammatical forms and know just a few phrases - Beginner.
Often this classification applies solely to the English language.