Metropolitan - is ... Metropolitans of the Russian Church

Metropolitan - is ordained a high rank in the Christian church.The first official mention of the title recorded in the documents I Ecumenical Council, held at Nicaea in 325.It was also ordered his place in the hierarchy.

Church hierarchy in the Roman Empire, the main city of the province called Metropolitan.The bishop, having the chair, that is his residence, in the archdiocese called Metropolitan.

Metropolitan - is the highest title of bishop.A bishop (overseer, nadsmatrivayuschy), in turn, has the highest third degree of the priesthood, after the deacon and presbyter (priest he is, he is a priest).Therefore, Bishop is often called the bishop."Arch" - a piece that came from Greek and serves to indicate the high ecclesiastical rank.The bishops and administrators of dioceses subordinated to Metropolitan.If the diocese was large, the bishops or the bishops, its managers were called archbishops.The Russian Orthodox Church this prestigious title follows immediately after the Metropolitan.

External differences

These higher ecclesiastical rank look different headdress - hood.The bishops are black, archbishops - black with a cross made of precious metals and stones, and the Metropolitans wear white hoods with the same cross.They differ and mantle.So, bishops and archbishops are purple or dark red, Metropolitan - blue, Patriarch wears the mantle of green.In Lent all the episcopate in black robes.Metropolitan - a honorary title.The assignment of such title is a kind of reward, insignia, giving Merit.The Russian Orthodox Church Sanov archbishop and metropolitan bishop awarded for personal contribution to the Church.They are granted for long service.

One of the oldest

It should be noted that the Metropolitan - is the oldest title in the Christian church.Some researchers believe the church that the apostles were Metropolitans, others relate to the occurrence of this jurisdiction II century, when there was a necessity of centralization of church authority.And in the year 325 and 341 at the Council of Bishops of the san was just completely installed.It was prescribed powers, which have increased significantly in volume.It was legalized and regulated, it should not cause any longer disputes.Cathedral of Toledo, held in 589, further expanded the rights of Metropolitan - now he could punish subordinate bishops.In general, the Christian doctrine formed in the councils IV - VIII centuries.The following years did not bring any significant changes.

The first

Rus was baptized at the end of X century Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovych.In most cases, it states that in 988, but some historians and called 991. There is also no accurate data on the first Metropolitan of Kiev.But from the XVI century, it is assumed that it was Michael.He also had the name of Syrian, because he was an ethnic or Greek, or Syrian.

believed that the Metropolitan Michael and monks, who arrived with him, were built the gold-domed Michael's and Kyiv Mezhegorsky monasteries.Championship contests Metropolitan Leonty, some sources call it his first Metropolitan of the same date the Board - 992-1008 years.Then came Theophylact, John I, Feopemt, Kirill I of the Greeks.Dates of the Board of each of them challenged.It should be noted that all of them were foreigners.

first Russian

and only took the San in 1051 and ruled the church until 1054, Metropolitan Hilarion (Rusin) was a compatriot.He died about 1088.He led the Church during the time of Yaroslav the Wise.Glorified as a saint - in the Orthodox Church is the holy of episcopal rank.He is the author of "Sermon on Law and Grace," he wrote in the years 1030-1050.In addition, he wrote the "Prayer", "Confession of Faith".

Metropolitan Hilarion also wrote praise of Yaroslav the Wise.Very minor details about the life of Hilarion, but in "The Tale of Bygone Years" indicates that the construction of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra began in 1051, that is, during the reign of Hilarion.In the Novgorod II Chronicle states that in 1054 Metropolitan of Kiev became Ephraim.This suggests that immediately after the death in 1054 of Yaroslav the Wise Hilarion was removed.

saint and miracle worker

very significant figure in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Alexy was.He is the patron saint of two famous Moscow and All Russia, the Patriarchs - Alexis I (Sergey Simansky, Patriarch from 1945 to 1970) and Alexy II (Alexis Riediger, Patriarch from 1990 to 2008).

Coming from a boyar family, the son of Theodore Byakont, the founder of several noble families such as Pleshcheev and Ignatiev.Wonderworker of All Russia and Moscow saint (canonized 50 years after his death), Metropolitan Alexy in his lifetime achieved considerable success as a statesman and a subtle diplomat.With him were considered in the Duchy of Lithuania and the Horde, with whom he had contacts and a different kind - Alexis Hanshi Taydulu healed from eye disease.Since 1354 appointed to the position of the Patriarch of Constantinople Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia Elevfery F. Byakont (in the world) was in this field until his death in 1378.He founded several monasteries, including the Monastery of the Miracles in the Kremlin.The Kremlin itself when it began to build up in the stone.Besides the monastery, he founded the Spaso-Andronikov, Simon Episcopal Vvedensky monasteries and Serpukhov.He wrote several religious works.The holy relics of the miracle worker in 1947 were transferred to the Bloch Epiphany Cathedral in Moscow, where they lie to this day.


since the baptism of Rus and to the XIV century, the country was a one-Metropolitan, the head of which is appointed in Constantinople.Naturally, most sent metropolitans were not Russian.Princes like to see in this post compatriots, because before in 1589 was introduced in Russia Patriarchate, metropolitans stood at the head of the church hierarchy, and much depended on them.The first Russian head of the Kiev church was Clement (Smolyatich, during the reign 1147-1156).Then, in this post we were still Greeks and Bulgarians.But since the reign of Theodosius (1461-1464), a period in which the total domestic autocephaly church headed it stood mostly Russian metropolitans, who from that time became known as "Moscow and All Russia."

prominent church leader and writer, who left behind a significant literary heritage, Theodosius (Byvaltsev) is renowned for being the first Metropolitan of Moscow appointed a Russian prince, and not the Patriarch of Constantinople.This highest ecclesiastical dignity of the Russian Orthodox Church - Metropolitan of Moscow, before the adoption of the patriarchate since the reign of Theodosius still wore Philip I and Gerontius, Zosima and Simon.And in turn it was awarded Varlaam and Daniel, Joseph and Macarius, Athanasius, and Philip II, Cyril Antony and Dionysius.Metropolitan of Moscow Job was already and the first Patriarch.