Charity ... The word is not quite familiar to us.All he heard at least once in life, but the right to explain the essence of the term the strength is not for everyone.And it's sad, because Russia has always been famous for the fact that charity and philanthropy were an integral part of its long tradition.
What is philanthropy?
If you ask any counter that such philanthropy, few people will be able to like that, at once, to give a plausible answer.Yes, everyone has heard of wealthy people to provide financial assistance to museums, orphanages, hospitals, children's sports organizations, young artists, musicians and poets.But whether all this assistance is patronage?There's still a charity and sponsorship.How to distinguish these concepts from each other?To understand these complex issues and help this article.
Charity - a financial or other support to other free individuals, provided by organizations and representatives of the arts and culture.
History of the term
The origin of the word is obliged to real historical person.Gaius Maecenas - here whose name became a household word.Noble Roman nobleman, associate emperor Octavian, famously helped talented poets and writers persecuted by the authorities.He was rescued from the death of the author of the immortal "Aeneid" by Virgil, and many other artists, whose lives were threatened for political reasons.
were in Rome and the other patrons of art, except Gaius Maecenas.Why is it a household name and has become a modern term?The fact that all the other rich benefactors refuse to stand up for the disgraced poet or artist out of fear of the emperor.But Gaius Maecenas at Octavian Augustus had a very strong influence, and was not afraid to go against his wishes and desires.He saved Virgil.Therefore supports the political opponents of the emperor and because of that fell from grace.And the only person who came to his aid - Maecenas.Therefore, the name of the rest of the benefactors was lost for centuries, and he will forever remain in the memory of those who unselfishly helped all my life.
History of patronage
exact date of the appearance of patronage can not be called.Undeniable is the mere fact that the need for assistance to representatives of art from positions of authority and wealth of people has always been.The reasons for such assistance were different.Someone really loved art and sincerely trying to help poets, artists and musicians.For others, it was a rich man or a tribute to fashion or the desire to show himself generous donor and patron saint in the eyes of the rest of society.Authorities also tried to patronize the arts with a view to keep them in subjection.
Thus, there was patronage since the emergence of the state.In antiquity, the Middle Ages and poets and artists were in a state of dependence from the authorities.It was almost domestic slavery.It maintains this position until the collapse of the feudal system.
the period of absolute monarchy sponsorship takes the form of pensions, awards, honors, court posts.
philanthropy and charity - is there a difference?
There is some confusion with the terminology and concepts of philanthropy, charity and sponsorship.All of them require assistance, but the difference between them is still quite substantial, and a sign of equality would be a mistake.It is worth a closer look at the issue of terminology.Of the three concepts of the most different sponsorship and patronage.The first term refers to aid under certain conditions, or investing in any business.For example, to support the artist may be subject to create a portrait of the sponsor or the mention of his name in the media.Simply put, sponsorship involves getting any benefit.Charity - is unselfish and gratuitous aid arts and culture.Maecenas not focuses on getting more benefits for themselves.The next
next topic - charity.It is very close to the concept of patronage, and the difference between them is barely noticeable.This is helping those in need, and the main motive here is compassion.The concept of charity is very wide, and philanthropy acts as its specific type.
Why do people engage in patronage?
Russian philanthropists and patrons always differed from the Western in its approach to assisting the arts.If we talk about Russia, the patronage - it is financial support, which is a sense of compassion, a desire to help without extracting any benefit for himself.In the West, the present time to benefit from the charity in the form of tax reductions or exemptions from them.So, to say there can not be a complete unselfishness.
Why the XVIII century Russian art patrons are increasingly beginning to patronize art and science, to build libraries, museums and theaters?
main driving force here were the following reasons - high morality, morality and religious patrons.Public opinion has actively supported the idea of compassion and mercy.Correct traditions and religious education have led to such a bright phenomenon in the history of Russia, as the flowering of art patronage in the late XIX - early XX centuries.
Charity in Russia.History and the state's attitude to such activities
charity and philanthropy in Russia have a long and deep tradition.Tie them in the first place since the appearance of Christianity in Kievan Rus.While charity existed as a personal aid to the needy.The first church was engaged in such activities, opening the hospices for the elderly, the disabled and the infirm, and hospitals.Home Charity put Prince Vladimir, formally obliged to engage the church and convent of public charity.
following rulers of Russia, eradicating professional begging, however, continued to take care of true need.Continue to build hospitals, almshouses, orphanages for the mentally ill and illegitimate.
Charity in Russia has successfully developed thanks to women.Especially excelled in helping the needy Empress Catherine I, Maria Feodorovna and Elizabeth A..
history of philanthropy in Russia from the end of the XVIII century, when it becomes a form of charity.
first Russian patrons
first patron in the history of Russia was Count Alexander Stroganoff.One of the country's largest landowners, Earl became famous as the most generous philanthropist and collector.A lot of traveling, Stroganov became interested in drawing up a collection of paintings, stones and coins.A lot of time, money and effort Earl paid the development of culture and art, and to provide assistance and support to such famous poets as Gabriel Derzhavin and Ivan Krylov.
Until the end of his life Count Stroganov was the permanent president of the Imperial Academy of Arts.At the same time, he oversaw the Imperial Public Library and was its Director.It was on his initiative, started construction of the Kazan Cathedral, involving not foreign and Russian architects.
People like Stroganov opened the way, followed by patrons, selflessly and sincerely help the development of culture and art in Russia.
famous Demidov dynasty, the founders of the Russian metallurgical industry, known not only for the huge contribution to the industrial development of the country, but also his charity.Representatives of the dynasty took care of the University of Moscow and founded a scholarship for students from low-income families.They opened the first commercial school for the children of merchants.Constantly help Demidov Foundling home.At the same time they are engaged in collection of the art collection.It has become the world's largest private collections.
Another famous patron and sponsor of the XVIII century - Count Nikolai Sheremetev.He was a connoisseur of the arts, especially theater.
At the time, he was known for the scandalous marriage to his own land, home theater actress Praskovya Zhemchugovoy.She soon died and bequeathed to her husband not to leave the matter of charity.Count Sheremetev fulfilled her request.Part of the capital it spent to help artisans and Dowry Bride.On his initiative, it started construction of hospices in Moscow.He also invested in the construction of houses and temples.
special contribution to the development of philanthropy merchants
Many people now have a completely wrong idea about the Russian Merchant XIX-XX centuries.It was formed under the influence of Soviet films and literary works in which the layer of society was exposed to the most unsightly manner.All merchants polls look poorly educated, focused solely on making a profit in any way people while completely devoid of compassion and mercy for others.This is fundamentally wrong idea.Of course, there are always exceptions, and will be, but most of the merchants were very informative and educated part of the population, not counting, of course, the nobility.
But among the noble families of benefactors and patrons could be counted on the fingers.Charity in Russia - entirely merit of the merchant class.
have already briefly mentioned, the reason why people become involved in patronage.For the majority of merchants and manufacturers charity has become almost a way of life, it has become an integral feature of the character.Here the role played by the fact that many wealthy merchants and bankers were the descendants of the Old Believers, which was characterized by a special relationship to money and wealth.And the attitude of Russian businessmen to the activity was somewhat different than, for example, in the West.For them wealth - is not a fetish, trade - not a source of profit, but rather the kind of duties imposed by God.
Raised in deep religious traditions, Russian businessmen-philanthropists believed that wealth is given by God, and hence, for him you need to be responsible.In fact, they believed that the obligation of aid.But it was not coerced.Everything was done at the call of the soul.
famous Russian patrons of the 19th century
This period is considered the heyday of philanthropy in Russia.Began a rapid economic growth contributed to stagger the imagination scope and generosity of rich people.
Famous patrons XIX-XX centuries - very often the representatives of the merchant class.The brightest representatives - Pavel Tretyakov and his less famous brother Sergey.
I must say that the merchants did not have Tretyakovs considerable wealth.But this did not prevent them carefully collect paintings of famous masters, spending significant sums on them.Sergei Mikhailovich was more interested in Western painting.After his death bequeathed his brother entered the collection of the paintings of Pavel Mikhailovich.Introduced in 1893, the art gallery was named after two great Russian patrons.If we talk only about the collection of paintings of Pavel Mikhailovich, that a lifetime patron of Tretyakov spent on it about a million rubles.The incredible sum for those times.
started his collection of Russian paintings Tretyakov in his youth.Even then, he was exactly the goal - to open a national public gallery that anyone could visit it for free and join the masterpieces of Russian art.
Tretyakov brothers, we owe the magnificent monument of Russian patronage - the Tretyakov Gallery.
Patron Tretyakov was the only patron of the arts in Russia.Savva Mamontov, a representative of the famous dynasty, is the founder and builder of the largest railroads in Russia.He did not aspire to fame and completely indifferent to awards.His only passion was the love of art.Savva himself was deeply creative nature, and doing it very enterprise burden.According to contemporaries, he could become a magnificent opera singer (he even offered to perform on stage Italian opera house), and sculptor.
his estate Abramtsevo, he turned in a welcoming home for Russian artists.It is constantly visited Vrubel, Repin, Vasnetsov, Serov, and Chaliapin.All of them Mamontov provided financial assistance and patronage.But the greatest philanthropist provided support theater arts.
charitable activities Mamontov his relatives and business partners felt silly whim, but that did not stop him.At the end of life Savva appeared ruined and barely escaped prison.He was acquitted, but to engage in business could not.Until the end of his life was supported by all those whom he once helped selflessly.
Savva Timofeyevich Morozov - an amazing modesty philanthropist who helped the Art Theatre on the condition that his name not be mentioned about this in the newspapers.And the other members of this dynasty have provided invaluable assistance in the development of art and culture.Sergei Morozov Timofeevich keen on Russian arts and crafts, his collection was the center of the Handicraft Museum in Moscow.Ivan Abramovich was a patron of an unknown when Marc Chagall.
Revolution and subsequent events interrupted her great traditions of Russian patronage.And after the collapse of the Soviet Union it was a long time before there were new patrons of modern Russia.For them, patronage - is part of a professionally organized activities.Unfortunately, the topic of charity, which is from year to year is becoming more popular in Russia, it is sparingly covered by the media.The general public are known to only a few cases, but most of the work of sponsors, patrons and foundations passes population.If you now ask any counter: "What modern patrons are known to you?", It is unlikely anyone will answer this question.Meanwhile, these people need to know.
among Russian entrepreneurs actively engaged in charity work in the first place it is worth noting the president of holding "Interros" Vladimir Potanin, who in 2013 declared that bequeaths his fortune to charity.It was truly a stunning statement.He started a foundation bearing his name, which is engaged in large projects in the field of education and culture.As Chairman of the board of trustees of the Hermitage, he had sacrificed his 5 million rubles.
Oleg Deripaska, one of the most influential and wealthiest businessmen of Russia, is the founder of the charity fund "free work", which is financed from personal funds of a businessman.The fund held more than 400 programs, whose budget amounted to a total of almost 7 billion rubles.Deripaska is engaged in charity activities in the field of education, science, culture and sports.Also, the fund provides assistance to the Hermitage, many theaters, monasteries and educational centers throughout the country.
In the role of philanthropists in modern Russia can act not only big business, but also government officials and commercial structures.Charity engaged in "Gazprom", JSC "Lukoil", CB "Alpha Bank" and many other companies and banks.
Would like to mention Dmitry Zimin, founder of "Vimpel-Communications".Since 2001, achieving sustainable profitability of the company, he retired and devoted himself entirely to charity.He founded the award "Illuminator" and fund "Dynasty."According to the most Zimin, all the capital he donated to the charity completely free.He created the Foundation has been supporting fundamental science in Russia.
course, modern philanthropy has not reached the level that was observed in the "gold" of the XIX century.Now it is patchy, while the philanthropists of the past centuries, culture and science have provided systematic support.