accession of Ukraine to Russia (1654) occurred against the background of complex social and political events related to the desire of Ukrainians to become more self-reliant and not depend entirely on Poland.1648 turned into an armed confrontation phase, but no matter how many victories scored Cossacks led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky over the Polish army, they could not draw victory on the battlefield into tangible political dividends.It became clear that without the help of a powerful ally to withdraw from the care of the Commonwealth will not be possible as a result of the reunion took place between Ukraine and Russia.Briefly describe the causes of historical events.
Equality and Autonomy
In the six years of war, in numerous bloody battles against the Ukrainian people of their tremendous stress forces many times denounced the Polish troops.But striking telling blows Rzeczpospolita Khmelnitsky the first time is not going to tear Ukraine away from the Polish state.He stood in the position of Cossack autonomy that is sought to Cossacks from gentry have equal rights, and the Ukrainian lands were equal within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on par with Poland and Lithuania.At that time it was not conducted about the reunification of Ukraine and Russia.1654 changed the situation.
Meanwhile, the idea of equality in the framework of the autonomy of a few believed.In the first years of the war in the Ukraine and in Poland, there were rumors that:
- Khmelnitsky wants to restore some "Old" or create a new principality.
- He himself the title "prince of Russia."
- Cossacks want to establish an independent state.
But then for the independence of Ukraine has not yet developed the necessary preconditions.The main participants in the war - and that illiterate Cossacks and the same illiterate peasants - could not create its own state ideology guiding layer - Cossack and gentry - had no proper political weight to bring the separatist plans.Moreover, even the hetman Khmelnitsky had the then popular trust.Only in the course of the war, during the formation of the Ukrainian Cossack state more firmly established and spread the idea of independence.
Union with Turkey
longer were fighting, the more Khmelnitsky, elders and the masses were convinced that only on its own without help Ukraine can not break free from the power of the Polish gentry.Powerful neighbor, ready to confront the Commonwealth, there were only two: the Russian state in the east and the Ottoman Empire in the south.There was a small selection of Khmelnytsky: either accession of Ukraine to Russia, or the recognition of vassalage to Turkey.
originally contender for the role of protector of Ukraine became the Turkish sultan, who had enough strength to resist the encroachments of Poland in Ukraine.Between Khmelnytsky and the Government of the Sultan were the respective negotiations.In 1651 Porte stated that the Army takes Zaporozhye as vassals.In fact real help to the Turkish sultan was limited only by the fact that participated in the battles of the Crimean Tatars, Cossacks century feuded with.They were very unreliable allies and their treacherous behavior, looting and leads the population in captivity brought more harm than good to the Ukrainians.
appeal for help to the Russian
alliance with the Ottoman Empire in fact never took place.It was not even in a weak military and financial aid to the Sultan, and mental incompatibility.Differences between the Orthodox and Muslims, whom the people called "infidels", proved to be insurmountable.In this situation, the eye of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the population of Ukraine appealed to fellow believers - the Russians.
June 8, 1648, six years before the occurrence of the accession of Ukraine to Russia (1654), Bohdan Khmelnytsky wrote the first letter of assistance to the Russian autocrat Alexei Mikhailovich.Initially, Russia was in no hurry to get into full-scale war with the strong Polish-Lithuanian kingdom.But the leader of the Ukrainians for six years to convince the king to help, ensuring the inclusion of the Russian state in the war against the Polish gentry.Khmelnitsky to Moscow ambassadors stressed the importance of working together for a common protection of the fraternal peoples of the Orthodox faith, their victories discredited exaggerated idea of the power of the Commonwealth, pointed out the great benefits that will have a reunion of Ukraine with Russia.1654 has shown the vision and the rightness of Khmelnitsky.
Russia in Moscow understood the importance of the alliance with Ukraine:
- strategic alliance, first of all, opened the way to the south up to the Black Sea and to the west.
- it weakens Poland.
- destroys Zaporizhzhya Sich possible alliance with Turkey.
- State strengthens the entry under the banner of three hundred thousand Russian Cossack troops.
However, for a long time because of the complicated internal and external circumstances, and based on the weakening of both warring parties - Ukraine and Poland - the tsarist government took a wait and see attitude.Help restricted sending to Ukraine of bread and salt, a resolution to move the Ukrainians on the edge of land, exchange of embassies.
policy of rapprochement
links between Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Russian government revived in the years 1652-1653, the last years of the liberation war.Almost continuously walked the Embassy of Ukraine to Moscow and from Moscow to Ukraine.In January 1652 Khmelnytsky sent to the Russian capital his envoy Ivan Iskra.Sparks in order embassy said the hetman, and all the army of Zaporozhye willing to "Majesty took them to his side."
In December 1652 and January 1653 in Moscow, held talks Samoilo Zarudny teammates.Zarudny said to the king, "had them adopted under its sovereign high hand."January 6th, 1653 Khmelnitsky Chigirin Rada convened the elders, who decided not to put up with Poland and continue to fight until they come to pass the entry of Ukraine into Russia.
In April-May 1653 talks in Moscow were full of ambassadors Kondraty and Silvanus Muzhilovsky.The tsarist government also sends messengers to Bogdan Khmelnitsky, particularly in late May 1653rd left Chyhyryn Matveev and Fomin.
1654 Ukraine-Russia - together forever
complication of the situation in Ukraine forced the tsarist government to speed up decision-making.June 22, 1653 in Ukraine from Moscow steward went Fedor Ladyzhenskii with a letter from the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, in which consent to the transfer of land in Ukraine under the "high royal hand."
October 1, 1653 in Moscow, met the Zemsky Sobor, designed to definitively resolve the issue of relations between Russia and Ukraine, and to declare war on the Commonwealth.The Faceted Chamber of the Kremlin decided to "Army of Zaporozhye Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the lands and cities to adopt under the sovereign's hand."So history was made.The reunification of the Ukraine with Russia was approved not only the king but also all sectors of the population (except the serfs who did not have the right to vote), whose representatives gathered at the cathedral.Simultaneously, the Zemsky Sobor decided to start a war with Poland.
However, this is not the ultimate accession of Ukraine to Russia.1654 It took several more meetings before the final terms were worked out entry.Russia was an important recognition of Ukraine as a free, independent country.This was the decision of the Provincial Council says so "that they would not release the nationality in the Turkish sultans and the Crimean khan, because they have become the royal oath free people."
Signing the agreement
31 January 1653 the Russian Embassy arrives at Khmelnitsky rate - the city of Pereyaslav - with a letter of the decision of Zemsky Sobor and "high command".Embassy, headed by V. Buturlin was solemnly greeted the chiefs and common people.
January 6, 1654 in Khmelnytsky Pereyaslav arrived and the next day met with ambassadors, in order to discuss the terms of union.January 8, after secret negotiations with the elders on the terms of accession, Bohdan Khmelnytsky went to the people and confirmed the accession of Ukraine to Russia.1654 was a turning point in the fate of the two peoples.
Ukrainian Embassy frequented several times in Moscow to discuss the details of voluntary entry of Left-Bank Ukraine a protectorate of the Russian Empire.
Ukraine History in dates: reunification with Russia
- 1591-1593 biennium.- Registered Cossacks uprising against the Polish gentry and the first Hetman Krzysztof Kosinski appeal for help to the Russian Tsar.
- 1622, 1624 years.- An appeal of Bishop Isaiah Kopinskogo, then Metropolitan of Job Boretskiy to the king to accept the Orthodox Little Russia Russian citizenship.
- 1648 - Bohdan Khmelnytsky raises all-Ukrainian uprising against the nobility and 8 June wrote the first letter to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and the union for help.The first victory of the Cossack troops and signing Zborowski peace treaty grants autonomy Zaporizhia Army.
- 1651 - the resumption of hostilities, a heavy defeat Cossacks Berestechko.
- 1653 - A new treatment of Bohdan Khmelnytsky to the Russians to help the Cossacks and a petition for the adoption of the Left Bank of Ukraine in citizenship.October 1 met the Zemsky Sobor.
- 1654 - January 8, gathered Pereyaslavskaya glad popularly decided to merge with Russia.March 27 Zemsky Sobor and the king met the majority of the requests put forward by the elders and the hetman envisages broad autonomy.This document has finally secured the reunification of left-bank Ukraine with Russia.