period when the Muslim world was under the rule of the Caliphate, called the Golden Age of Islam.This era lasted from the VIII to XIII century AD.It began with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.There, scientists from around the world sought to gather all available knowledge at the time and translate them into Arabic.The culture of the Caliphate in this period experienced unprecedented prosperity.It ended the Golden Age during the Mongol invasion and the fall of Baghdad in 1258.
reasons for cultural growth
In the VIII century, from China to the territory populated by Arabs, has penetrated new invention - paper.It was much cheaper and easier to manufacture than the parchment, more comfortable and more durable than papyrus.It is also better to absorb ink, so you can quickly make copies of manuscripts.The emergence of paper books have become much cheaper and more accessible.
ruling dynasty of the caliphate, the Abbasids, supported the accumulation and transfer of knowledge.She referred to the saying of the Prophet Mohammed, which reads: "Ink scientist - most sacred than the blood of a martyr."
Culture of the Arab Caliphate came out of nowhere.It is based on achievements of earlier civilizations.Many classic works of antiquity were translated into Arabic and Persian and later Turkish, Hebrew and Latin.Arabs assimilated, reinterpreted and expanded the knowledge gained from the ancient Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, Chinese and other sources.
Science and Philosophy
Culture Caliphate Islamic traditions combined with the ideas of ancient thinkers, particularly Aristotle and Plato.Arabic philosophical literature was translated into Latin as contributing to the development of European science.
Based on Greek predecessors, such as Euclid and Archimedes, mathematicians Caliphate first systematic study of algebra.The Arabs introduced the Europeans with Indian numbers, decimal system.
in the Moroccan city of Fez in 859 year the university was founded.Later, similar institutions were opened in Cairo and Baghdad.In the universities studied theology, law and Islamic history.The culture of the Caliphate was open to external influences.Among the teachers and students were not only Arabs, but also foreigners, including non-Muslims.
In the IX century on the territory of the Caliphate began to develop a system of medicine based on scientific analysis.The thinkers of that time Al-Razi and Ibn Sina (Avicenna) codified the contemporary knowledge on the treatment of diseases and presented them in a book, which later became widely known in medieval Europe.Due to the Arabs Christian world rediscovered the ancient Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen.
culture of the Caliphate included the precepts of Islam based on the traditions of the poor.Therefore, in large cities there were free hospitals, supports all patient appealed.They are funded by religious foundations - Vakuf.On the territory of the Caliphate were the first institution in the world to care for the mentally ill.
Features Culture Arab Caliphate especially evident in decorative works.Islamic ornaments can not be confused with the samples of the fine arts of other civilizations.Characteristic patterns decorated carpets, clothes, furniture, dishes, facades and interiors of buildings.
use of ornamentation associated with the religious ban on images of animate beings.But it is not always strictly enforced.The book illustrations image people have been widespread.In Persia, which was also part of the Caliphate, like the frescoes painted on the walls of buildings.
Egypt and Syria in ancient times were the centers of the glass industry.On the territory of the Caliphate preserved and perfected this type of craft.In the early Middle Ages the world's best glass products produced in the Middle East and Persia.The highest technical culture of the Caliphate was highly appreciated by the Italians.Later, the Venetians, using the operating time of Islamic artists created their glass industry.
pursuit of perfection and beauty labels permeated the entire culture of the Arab Caliphate.Briefly expressed religious instruction or a passage from the Koran applied to a variety of subjects: coins, ceramic tiles, metal bars and walls of houses, and so on. D. Masters, who owned the art of calligraphy, the Arab world had a higher status than other artists.
Literature and Poetry
Initially, the culture of the Caliphate was characterized by a focus on religious subjects and the desire to oust the Arab regional languages.But after the liberalization of many spheres of public life.This particular led to a revival of Persian literature.
greatest interest is the poetry of the period.Verses are found in almost every Persian book.Even if it works on philosophy, astronomy and mathematics.For example, almost half of the text book on medicine Avicenna wrote a poem.Widespread eulogies.Developed as epic poetry.The pinnacle of this trend is the poem "Shakhname."
famous fairy tales "Thousand and One Nights" also have a Persian origin.But the first time they have been collected in a book and written in Arabic in the XIII century, in Baghdad.
culture of the Caliphate was formed under the influence of both ancient pre-Islamic civilizations, and neighboring Arab nations.This is most clearly manifested in the synthesis of architecture.Buildings in the Byzantine and Syriac style characteristic of the early Muslim architecture.Architects and decorators of many buildings constructed on the territory of the Caliphate, came from Christian countries.
Great Mosque in Damascus was built on the site of the Basilica of St. John the Baptist, and almost exactly the same as its shape.But soon appeared and the actual Islamic architectural style.Keyruana Great Mosque in Tunisia has become a model for all subsequent Muslim religious facilities.It is square in shape and consists of a minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and a huge prayer hall with two domes.
Culture of the Arab Caliphate was pronounced regional variations.So, for the Persian architecture were characterized by pointed and horseshoe arches, to the Ottoman - buildings with multiple domes, to the Maghreb - the use of columns.
Caliphate had extensive trade and political ties with other countries.Therefore, its culture had a great impact on many peoples and civilizations.