symbol of the Orthodox culture of ancient Russia has always been temples.The beauty and grandeur of religion begin with the center of church life - Orthodox churches.
From wood to stone
abundance of forests in Russia affected the prevalence of wood construction.The tree was considered a cheap material and the difficulty in the extraction of building stone also affects its value.
describes the history of ancient Russia, which were almost all wooden buildings: towers, palaces, houses of the peasants, as well as the church.The log is a key element of any design.Creative designs were limited.Few dared to desperate experiments to spend searching for an alternative material.Classic design of the peasant huts were square houses.A more complex composition is the princely towers, the church tent.
It is because of the fragility of much of the building material of ancient architecture was lost.
associated with the baptism of Rus stone construction.The first stone temple of ancient Russia is the one that was founded in Kiev Constantinople architects.Historians believe the date of the event 989 th year.Prior to that, too, were the temples, but the wooden structure.
According to chronicles, the construction of the temple was finished in 996 th, while it was solemnly consecrated.
of faith and traditions
ratio of believers to the temples was always special in Orthodoxy.Often the construction of the new church took place on donations.
The roots of the tradition out of the Old Testament.According to the chronicles it found that the first stone temple of ancient Russia is the Church of the Holy Virgin, or some other - Church of the Tithes.After the Baptism of Russia, in the early years, it was the beginning of the construction of the church in the tradition of Byzantine splendor and Bulgarian architecture.The founder of the noble deeds became Prince Vladimir, gave a tenth of the revenue.
Up to now it was not possible to save the first stone church ancient in its original form.It was destroyed by the Mongols during the capture of Kiev.Restoration work began in the XIX century.However, the design of the church significantly reflected in the architecture of temples all over Russia.
On the first stone church
first stone temple of ancient Russia got its name from the tithes donated by Prince for construction.So it was fixed in the history of its definition - Church of the Tithes.
Undoubtedly, the first stone church of ancient Russia is a structure which can be considered the palace church.Balances brick foundation historians to conclude that a number of palace buildings were erected.Significant destruction can not restore their original architectural appearance, but it was the conclusion of experts ceremonial rooms.
residential palace premises were wooden part of the second floor of a stone palaces, or is adjacent to the first stone temple of ancient Russia.It is a historical fact that Kiev stood out among the other cities of stone and brick architecture.The state capital featured a monumental building.
well shows the influence of the Greek masters in architectural design of the Transfiguration Cathedral.
In times of the Principality of Mstislav and Yaroslav the country was divided.Then began the next phase of construction.In the Capital city of Chernigov construction began earlier.Mstislav beginning laid the foundation of the Savior Cathedral.
exact date of commencement of construction can not be traced in the written sources.It is known that in 1036 the walls of the cathedral began, by definition, "like horses on hand dosyaschi worthwhile", which means "very high."The date marked the history of the death of Prince Mstislav.
in Kiev Saint Sophia Cathedral erected later Chernigov Savior Cathedral.Analyzing the political situation and some of the historical data, the period when the temple was built of stone, can be considered in 1037.Hagia Sophia, reflects the desire to repeat the Byzantine designs.This is the largest church of Kievan Rus' was taken as a sample for cross-domed building in the construction of cathedrals in Novgorod and Polotsk.
In 1073 founded the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev Caves Monastery.This temple has played a significant role in the development of Russian architecture.In the "Crypt Paterikon" is the record: "... Master of church 4 men" - described the arrival of the architects for the construction of the building of Constantinople.On the composition of church buildings of Kiev-Pechersk Monastery also contributed Sofia Kiev.Uneasy history convinces the Orthodox Cathedral of the Assumption in the power of faith - the cathedral blown up in 1942, was rebuilt in the 1990s.
At the end of the XI century large ancient Russian town Pereslavl becomes military and political significance.Behind its walls Kiev land and all Dnieper River found shelter from the invading Polovtsian.On the ground of this great city unfolded construction of the "stone city" - Michael's Church.At the initiative of Prince Vladimir Monomakh and Bishop Ephraim came to the gates of the gate church of Fedor.In 1098 the prince's court to begin the construction of the Church of Our Lady.
According references chronicles, the city is found traces of a small church on the river Lte.Unfortunately Orthodox people and historians pereyaslavlskie monuments have not been preserved to this day.
value of the church - from school to the royal title
temples of ancient Russia influenced the determination of names of streets, roads and cities.All objects that were associated with the holy place, quickly assumes the name of the temple, the church.
Between Ancient Rus churches were places of association.The new settlement began with the construction of the temple - the center of everyone's life.Worship then collected almost all the inhabitants of the village.Important events of each family was to hold ceremonies: weddings, baptisms, funerals, blessings.
Church played a major role in the Orthodox cult.The decoration of the premises, rituals, icons give the believer the hope of salvation of his soul.In addition, everyone can enjoy the beauty of the temple.
Considerable impetus given Orthodoxy arts establishment.Their development is going on inside temples.For the believer, the church was paramount throughout the culture and worship.That is why some of the important events not related to the life of the Church, held under the dome of the shrine.These include: the anointing of kings on the throne, Extreme Unction, the announcement of the king's decree.Do not forget about the small importance of churches in educating people of literacy.
In its role as a social phenomenon in the lives of ancient Russia, monasteries and temples were the place where the training was organized, arranged the archives, workshops, libraries.Later, from the XIX century, began to assert early on while schools, parochial schools.
perfect decoration for the benefit of posterity
unified interior architecture church building Ancient Russia - a distinctive feature of the period.Classic version had low altar partition, allowing you to see the upper part of the altar area of the church.
each mole visually nearer to the center of worship.For an Orthodox Christian, it was important to see the divine space that united earthly and heavenly Church.
interior decoration of churches under the mosaic style comes from the Byzantine tradition.Decor bright and light design symbolizes the unity of earthly and heavenly.
temples of ancient Russia bore the function of museums, which transferred the relics of saints, icons, relics of a historical value.It is transmitted to the preservation of ancient manuscripts and important documents.Thanks to the work of the priests and ministers of the church, the history of ancient Russia can be traced literally for years, and many historical events have opened contemporaries as indisputable evidence gathered in the church.
blessing to protect the Russian land
Church accompanied the soldiers on the battlefield or service.Sometimes the reason for the construction became commemoration of those killed in battle.Such churches erected on the battlefield, in gratitude to the soldiers for the victory.
In peacetime, the churches and temples were erected in honor of the great festivals of the saints.For example, the Ascension of Christ the Savior.
honoring the sacred - the benefit currently
For the believer, the church has always been important in my life.Therefore, the construction permitted only upscale master architects.Bazaar area, gatherings and meetings of citizens held near the church, as evidenced by the map of ancient Russia.
can not do without the construction of large investment funds.On the creation of sacrificing only the good: materials, land.Given the fact that the church was built on a hill, or as the ancestors, "a red spot," it serves as a reference point at which the mapping of ancient Russia, the plan area.
construction techniques give clearance roof stone architecture shade of wooden architecture.This is especially expressed in the examples from the temple buildings.Roofs continued to make gable and hipped.
In small villages, where churches were built modest, masonry was carried out by type of peasant house when the foundation went to the crown (four log).When combined, they form a square or rectangle.The result is a structure of a number of crowns - frame.
more complex designs, but for a given principle to build churches.Quadrangular frame changed on an octagonal frame.The principle of combining bushels octagons and moved to Russia and stone architecture preserved today.
tent churches distributed in Russia by type of two- and multi-storey buildings.To connect individual houses, they were connected with each other the system transitions (galleries, porches).
Putting church buildings on stone plinths, builders placed under leaving the ground floors of basements, cellars and relevant to the time tunnels.
destruction and rebirth temples
Half a century has stopped the development of ancient architecture after the invasion of the Tatars.For various reasons the Horde passed master painters and builders of the churches and temples were destroyed.
Departing from Byzantine models, the ancient temples of Russia in the 12th century acquired the original features, determined the development of Russian architecture.
Everything you need to know about student life of ancient Russia, set out in educational materials for Grade 6.Ancient Russia - the history of our ancestors, formation, battle, victory of our state, which everyone should know Russian.