structure of the market economy consists of financial, commercial, industrial and informational links that use the rules of business relations as a legal basis, interacting with each other.Market - a place where contact various groups that have a common ground.Some are producers (offering their goods or services), the second - respectively, the consumers (purchase them).The result is prices that are set by the market to stabilize the value of sales.
Due to the limited economic resources compared to the needs of society in goods and services have been developed for their distribution among the various areas of consumption.Thus, there is an economic system that is the aggregate value of institutional and socio-economic relations between consumers and producers.
Depending on the ownership and control of economic activity order a traditional release (which is based on the dominance of the traditional methods of economic activity), team (characterized by state ownership, which are the majority of enterprises) and the market view of the economy.In turn, the latter has a certain model of a market economy, which were formed according to the national cultural traditions and historical conditions of formation.
Today all countries - newly industrialized and post-industrial - is a country with a market economy.Accordingly, each of them formed a kind of model of market economy, depends on the location of the country geographically, the existence of natural resources, development conditions, the level of the forces of production and the direction of society in social terms.
planned economy, which was used in the Soviet Union fell into oblivion.Now the basic modern model of a market economy are divided into different types.Among them are the following:
1. American model of market economy.It is characterized by a minimum proportion of state ownership, low regulatory role of the state in the economy, a sharp differentiation of the population into rich and poor, a significant difference in salary levels and an acceptable quality of life of the poor.
2. The Japanese model of a market economy.It is characterized by the increasing role of the social and the technical and economic efficiency of business.Also, its characteristic feature is a large degree of autonomy from the state budget, more independence and commercialization activities.Differences between the Japanese model can also be called a significant impact on the state direction of the economy, the widespread use of lifetime employment of workers of firms, insignificant difference in salary levels and the involvement of employees in the management of the company.
3. The German model is characterized by the influence of the state on the economy in solving sotsproblem, the decisive role of banks and the central bank's full autonomy.The difference in wages, as in the Japanese model, is negligible.
4. Swedish is often called the second model of socialism.Here, a large state role in ensuring the stability of the economy and income distribution.Sweden - is one of the countries with the highest living standards and a minimum level of unemployment.
As we can see, each country has its own distinctive approach and distinctive features in the environment.However, the various models of the market economy and have common features, such as ownership, free prices for goods and services, free competition, entrepreneurship and a certain kind of system of state regulation of economic activity.