Wet equatorial forests are often called light of the planet, and there is much truth.A huge number of green plants through the process of photosynthesis continually transform carbon dioxide into oxygen necessary for all living things.What explains the observed in these places a riot of vegetation?
One reason is the large number of annual rainfall (over 2,000 mm) and a favorable temperature regime - from +25 to +28 degrees Celsius.While in many countries the summer the thermometer often rises above 30 degrees, due to the high humidity level 25 in the equatorial forest is subjectively perceived as a very uncomfortable and hot weather.
Once wet equatorial forests set for botanists serious question: why, in such a variety of vegetation, local soils are relatively poor in humus?But the answer was found.It turned out that due to frequent rains topsoil can not indefinitely accumulate - it is washed into the river water flows.Moreover, the plants themselves immediately absorb the remaining trace elements.
Currently, many environmental organizations warn that if the humid equatorial forests continue to cut down at the same rate as now, it is already the next generation of people might not see all the beauty of the evergreen forests.Only some hundred years ago, these forests occupy no less than 12% of the world's land area, but now this figure barely exceeds 5%.It is easy to calculate that, while maintaining the same intensity after 60-70 years instead of felling trees on the grass left alone.And as the amount of rainfall is determined by evaporation of moisture from the forest, even grass can be a rarity in the disappearance of the rains.Climate and plants form a very complex system of interdependent, so thoughtless human intervention can lead to tragic consequences.More detailed information on the results of studies of environmental organizations can on their websites or in print.
humid equatorial forests of Africa extend into the central part of the continent, as well as areas along the equator.But it would be a mistake to say that such forests - the prerogative of only the Africans.Much more extensive humid equatorial forests of South America.Here they occupy nearly 30% of the land.
What rainforests so attracted scientists?The answer lies in the tremendous diversity of life forms.So, in the woods with a temperate climate in an area of one hectare can be counted relatively few species of trees.For example, pine forest (mainly pine), birch grove, and so on. All completely different in relation to the rainforest - in the same area for more than 80 species coexist.Their life cycles are so closely intertwined that even the researchers honored rainforest admit that until a full understanding of all the relationships are still very far away.Of course, only one plant variety is not exhausted.These forests are home to a variety of arthropods, reptiles and mammals.After an abundance of plant foods ensures a variety of herbivores.Here's an example: if we take the area of the equatorial forest with a side of a square of 10 square meters.km, then it is possible to count more than 100 species of butterflies, 120 species of mammals and at least 400 - birds.
The portion of air that falls into our lungs with each breath, the oxygen is "born" in the equatorial "green lungs" of the planet.How to protect them from felling?Of course, just to organize demonstrations and rallies - is ineffective, but ancient wisdom argues that a long journey begins with only one small steps.So on forests: respect for nature in their places of residence - this is the small step.