According to all known definition, socialization - a process of familiarizing the individual to the society in which it exists, its acceptance of the norms and behaviors of the society.The concept of socialization is seen in many areas of knowledge, however, different disciplines are exploring different aspects of this process.Psychologists interested in the mechanisms that help the individual to adapt to society, ieassimilate its rules.Sociologists are studying how and what role the individual learns, and how at the same time in the community formed his personality.Depending on what is being studied, and may produce a narrow meaning of "socialization".This gender, political, religious and other socialization.
Speaking of socialization, it is often divided into primary and secondary.Primary called acceptance in society values a child.Secondary socialization is - an adaptation of the rules of an adult.
accepted to allocate several stages of socialization:
1. Adaptation.During this period, starting with birth and ending as a teenager, through imitation is the assimilation of social experience without critical evaluation.The growing child learns to adapt to the world around them.
2. Identification.At this stage, the individual is trying to find his place in society, somehow identifying with a certain group.
3. Integration, ie full integration into the social life, which in some cases may never be successful.
4. Work step.At this stage, the individual accumulates own work experience and included in the appropriate system of relations, as well as actively influence the environment in which is located.
5. Posletrudovaya stage, which some researchers believe maladjustment stage, others - the maturity stage, when there is acceptance of yourself rethinking his life and it is time to transfer the experience to others.
considered stage of socialization is usually distinguished Russian authors, is the successor of "employment" approach.Ericsson offers a more detailed periodization describing and children's age, and the next stages in the development of the individual in society.Other stages of socialization and Freud stand.
process of socialization takes place in various institutions, that is, those groups in which the transmission of norms and values: it is, first of all, the family, educational institutions at all levels, labor collectives.To the institution of socialization includes the so-called unorganized environment that is informal groups and the media, whose influence can not be underestimated.
Socialization and education
should differentiate concepts of socialization and education and training.If training involves highly directional feedback, socialization - a much broader concept, which includes the adoption of new roles, and adaptation to the environment.However, as with education, socialization is a bidirectional process.This means that not only affects the human society.He did not just adapt, he affects the already established norms and modifies them involved in the adaptation of the other.
Unlike the learning process of assimilation of social norms and finding their place in society can not be accelerated.We can only identify factors affecting the process such as socialization.It is a biological factor, the physical and social environment, as well as individual and group experience.It features a variety of human birth determine the differences between individuals who had grown up, it would seem, in the same conditions.
If apart from scientific terms and classifications, we can say that the socialization that occurs throughout our life, is necessary for the proper formation of the system of values, promote respect for others and self-awareness as a person.It is needed for normal learning and later work to fully carry out their roles and functions, and the subsequent transfer of their social and other experience to the next generation.