Group decision-making methods (or expert assessment) are required to develop and implement most innovations.Their essence is to get the best answers to the questions put to experts.
for examination usually formed organizational group, which provides the conditions to carry out effective work.Its main objectives are:
- posing a major problem of expertise;
- development of basic procedures for its conduct;
- selection and the formation of an expert group;
- conducting a survey among experts;
- processing and interpretation of this information.
There are different models and methods of decision-making in group work.Consider in more detail the most common and are used in practice.
method of "brainstorming» has wide application and is aimed at the formation of the final decisions on the basis of the ideas that are put forward haphazardly group at teamwork.In the future, they are refined and discussed.
methods of decision-making "635" are a variant of the previous method.But the exchange of data and views in the group will be a written method and necessarily in five rounds.
targeted discussions method is used when there is no need to hurry.This is - an open discussion on the issue, which is conducted in order to develop a consensus of experts.And the collective opinion will be determined, as a rule, by a vote.But these methods of decision making have some disadvantages:
- no anonymity, which in some cases can lead to conformism;
- discussion often turns into a polemic authorities.
inversion method - a complex method of decision making.He will ask the head of the group attention and special competence.The fact that such decision-making methods involve search for ideas in such areas, which are opposed to conventional beliefs, opinions, logic and common sense.The method is very effective, if it is wisely used.
Delphi technique.His developed Helmer and Delco.This method is a decision-making methods that are united by the common requirements for examination and method for obtaining estimates.It implies that the need to create conditions that will ensure a more productive activity of the committee.
This method - mnogoturovaya procedure of questioning.After each stage of the data will be further developed, and the results communicated to the experts.In the first round does not give any argument, in the second - any response that is different from the others, it must have the evidence base.Only after will stabilize estimates the survey will be discontinued.The decision was adopted as the one suggested by experts, or else it is corrected.
nominal group technique is usually used to find the best one to solve the problem.The main condition must be the following: to work as a team to attract the best experts that have never worked together.They should not associate anything.Optimal group is one in which no more than fifteen, but at least six people.
Content method.Head sets all participants in the task, for ten minutes each makes its own proposals for cards.After that, other experts should assess their rejecting impossible, impracticable ideas and exposing scores.As a result, the solution to the same problem will be at least fifteen options.
were presented the most common methods of group decision making, but it is very difficult between them to draw clear boundaries.