migration of the population is called its movement within the country or abroad.There are different kinds of it, depending on the purpose and direction of migration.By nature it is a family, recreation, travel and work.It is this kind of migration, we discuss in more detail, consider its classification and characteristics that are inherent in this process in our country.
«Labour migration" - a term which refers to the movement for the purpose of employment.As a rule, we are talking about working population, mostly under the age of 40 years.According to the direction of travel are allocated:
- labor emigration;
- labor migration within the country.
first type associated with the "brain" of qualified personnel abroad due to the inability to perform their work for a worthy reward.This is due to the emigration of Eastern Europe, India and Africa.As the country's entry in this case are usually chosen the United States as well as Canada and Western Europe.Another type of labor migrants - low-skilled, including seasonal workers.They replace the vacancies, empty because of the unwillingness of local people to work for low wages.The downside of this phenomenon can be called a reduction in the cost of labor in the market and a possible violation of law and emigration laws.This gives rise to hostility and resentment toward immigrants in the country.Particularly relevant problems, which creates a migration of labor from the low-skilled, for Europe, which is a topic for another article.
There are different approaches to the study of migration.In the economic approach, labor migration is seen as a way to control the number and distribution of labor resources and a positive factor in encouraging competition.Psychological approach studies the motivational sphere of the phenomenon.Opinion - adaptation problems of migrant workers in the society.
migration processes in the country are also associated with finding a job that allows you to meet not only physical needs but also the needs of professional growth, housing, allows you to change the social status, lifestyle, etc.Internal migration may also be permanent and seasonal.
For our country is characterized by labor migration in the Central Region, as well as temporary migration for the purpose of shift work.In the last 2 decades, positive migration balance is observed in both capitals, and in the Krasnodar region and the Volga region.The outflow of the population is due to the European cities of the North, Siberia and the Far East.The problem of unemployment in the region is quite acute, while retaining the need for labor in the northern areas, where there is mining.
recently begun implementation is not very successful programs that promote migration within the country.However, until now legislation in the area of migration mainly aimed at solving the complex issues related to the often illegal labor migrants from neighboring countries.Difficulties with the distribution of labor, including associated and inherited from the Soviet era unnatural structure of the distribution of the population with reference to the registration.This naturally complicates labor migration and a low level of economic development of the regions, and the relatively high cost of travel, rent housing.Therefore, despite the fact that the country has a need for additional manpower, the population is still not enough mobility in comparison, for example, with the European countries, labor migration, and Russia needs additional incentive measures.