acids are called complex compounds composed of hydrogen atoms that have the ability to replace the metal atoms, and the acid residue.
acids are electrolytes.The chemical properties determined by the composition of acids.
Classify acid on various grounds:
1. According to the number of hydrogen atoms.
2. In the presence of oxygen.
3. According to the degree of dissociation.
of the number of oxygen atoms (this depends on the chemical properties of acid), they are divided into oxygen-free (hydrogen sulphide, hydrochloric acid and so on. D.) And the oxygen-containing (nitric, sulphurous, silicon and so on. D.)
of the number of hydrogen atomsacid are:
- monobasic, containing one atom of hydrogen (hydrochloric, nitric);
- diacids containing two hydrogen atoms (sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulphide);
- tribasic containing three hydrogen atoms (phosphoric).
The third feature is divided into weak acid electrolytes (phosphoric, carbonic, etc. D.) And strong electrolytes (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid).
chemical properties of acids
presence of hydrogen ions in the acid solution determines their acidic environment and sour taste.However, to try them on language can not be as possible chemical burns.
litmus indicators methyl orange, and under the influence of acid changes its color.
acid solutions react with basic oxides, resulting in formation of a salt and water.
acid reacts with the metal element located on the left of hydrogen in the electromotive series of metals.The result is a metal salt of hydrogen.
acids react with bases.The reaction yields a salt, and water.The reaction between the acid and alkali (base) is called neutralization reaction.
acid reacts with solutions of salts, when the condition of occurrence and flow ion exchange reaction to the end, that is, precipitate or allocated gas.
chemical properties of organic acids have their own characteristics.
Properties phosphoric acid
Phosphoric acid and its aqueous solutions are much weaker acids such as nitric and sulfuric.This acid, in which structure there are three oxygen atoms.An electrolytic dissociation of phosphoric acid takes place stepwise.Typical acid - phosphoric acid, its chemical properties are defined composition.
The phosphoric acid solution is mainly present dihydrogenphosphate ions.Ions which are formed in the second stage of dissociation is significantly less, and phosphate ions, the result of the third stage of ionization is almost absent.In the first stage of phosphoric acid - acid of medium strength.Since there are three kinds of anions, then by reacting phosphoric acid with an alkali salt formed following: phosphates, hydrogen phosphates and dihydrogen phosphates.
orthophosphoric acid may be distinguished from each other by acid reacted with silver nitrate, which resulted in a yellow precipitate formed.Other phosphoric acids interacting with silver nitrate to form a white precipitate.Phosphoric acid cleaves upon heating water and forms pyrophosphoric acid.
chemical properties of hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid is a strong monobasic acid with the typical properties of acids.Colorless slightly fuming liquid solution of hydrogen chloride in water.The salts of hydrochloric acid are called "chloride".
Hydrochloric acid may be prepared by reacting solutions of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid in water.Hydrochloric acid reacts with a base, thereby forming a salt and water.When interacting with the alkali neutralization reaction occurs.You can verify this indicator.Its color will change, confirming a neutral solution.
reaction of hydrochloric acid and silver nitrate leads to the formation of insoluble salts - silver chloride precipitated.
Hydrochloric acid reacts with active metals.If you put it in a solution of zinc, begins active formation and evolution of hydrogen.
Hydrochloric acid as a typical acid reacts with bases, metals and salts.