entropy - is a word that many have heard, but few understand.And we have to admit that before the end realize the essence of this phenomenon is really difficult.However, this should not frighten us.Much of what surrounds us, we, in fact, can be explained only superficially.And we are not talking about the perception or knowledge of a particular individual.No.We talk about the totality of scientific knowledge at the disposal of mankind.
Serious gaps exist not only in the knowledge of galactic proportions, for example, in questions about black holes and wormholes, but that surrounds us constantly.For example, there is still debate about the physical nature of light.And who can sort through the concept of time?Such questions - are vast.But in this article I'll describe entropy.For many years, scientists are struggling with the concept of "entropy."Chemistry and physics go hand in hand in the study of this mysterious phenomenon.We will try to find out what has become known to our time.
introduction of the concept in academia
The concept of entropy among the experts introduced the outstanding German mathematician Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius.In simple terms, the scientist decided to find out what to do with energy.In what sense?To illustrate, let's not refer to numerous experiments and complex math reasoning, and take an example more familiar to us from everyday life.
You must be well aware that when you charge, say, a mobile phone battery, the amount of energy that is stored in the batteries will be less than actual received from the network.There is a certain loss.In everyday life we are used to it.But the fact that such losses occur in other closed systems.For physicists, mathematicians, it is a serious problem.The study of this issue and worked Rudolf Clausius.
As a result, he brought very curious fact.If we, again, remove the complicated terminology, it will mean that entropy - the difference between the ideal and the real process.
Imagine that you own a shop.And you got for the realization of 100 kilograms grapefruit and costs 10 MNT per kg.Putting the margin 2 Tug on pounds, you will get from the sale of 1200 MNT will give posited amount provider and leave yourself a profit of two hundred MNT.
So, it was a perfect description of the process.And any trader knows that for the time will sell all grapefruit, they will have time to dry up by 15 percent.A 20 percent at all rot, and they have just written off.But this is a real process.
So, the concept of entropy, which is introduced into a mathematical environment, Rudolf Clausius, is defined as the relationship of the system in which the increase of entropy depends on the ratio of the temperature to the value absolute zero.In fact, it shows the value of the waste (lost) energy.
index measures the chaos
still possible with some conviction to say that entropy - a measure of chaos.That is, if we take as a model of a closed room of an ordinary schoolboy, not cleaned the place of school uniforms will have to characterize some entropy.However, its role in this situation will be small.But if in addition to that scatter toys, bring the popcorn from the kitchen (of course, a little damage) and leave a mess on the table all the textbooks, the entropy of the system (as in this case - the room) will rise sharply.
entropy matter - very difficult to describe the process.Many researchers over the last century have contributed to the study of the mechanism of its work.Moreover, the concept of entropy is used not only mathematics and physics.She is also a well-deserved place in the chemistry.Some craftsmen use it to explain even the psychological processes in human relations.Let us see the difference in the wording of the three physicists.Each of them reveals entropy to the other side, and their combination will help us draw it more coherent picture.
Impossible transition of heat from a body at a lower temperature to a body with a higher.
verify this postulate is simple.You will never be able to warm up cold hands, say, frozen little puppy as though you would like to help him.So we have to shove it in her bosom, where the temperature is higher than it has currently.
Can not process whose result would be quite work due to the heat, taken from one of the bodies.
And if quite simply, it means that it is physically impossible to construct a perpetual motion machine.Do not allow the entropy of a closed system.
Boltzmann Entropy can not decrease in closed systems, ie those that do not receive external energy supply.
This formulation has shaken the faith of many supporters of the theory of evolution, and forced them to think seriously about the presence of an intelligent Creator of the universe.Why is that?
Because the default in a closed system entropy always increases.So, exacerbated by the chaos.Reduce it can only be due to external energy supply.And this law, we are seeing every day.If you do not take care of the garden, the house, the car, and so on. E., They simply come into disrepair.
megamasshtabah in our universe - is also a closed system.And scientists have come to the conclusion that our very existence should reflect the fact that somewhere this external energy recharge takes place.Today, therefore, no surprise that astrophysicists believe in God.
Arrow Of Time
Another very ingenious illustration of entropy can be represented as the arrow of time.That is, the entropy of the shows in which direction the process will move physically.
Indeed, it is unlikely to hear the dismissal of a gardener, you expect that the territory for which he was responsible, would be more accurate and well-groomed.On the contrary - if you do not hire another employee after some time, even the most beautiful garden come to desolation.
Entropy in chemistry
In the discipline "Chemistry" entropy is an important indicator.In some cases, its value affects the chemical reactions.
Who has not seen a scene from the film in which the characters very carefully transferred the container with nitroglycerin, fearing to provoke an explosion careless jerk?It was a visual aid to the principle of the entropy in chemical.If her figure reached a critical point, it would start the reaction, which resulted in an explosion.
disorder most often argue that entropy - is the desire to chaos.Actually the word "entropy" means turning or rotating.We have already said that it characterizes the action.It is interesting in this context, the entropy of the gas.Let's try to imagine how it happens.Take
closed system consisting of two connected containers, each of which is gas.The pressure in the tanks until they were tightly interconnected, was different.Imagine what happened at the molecular level, when they are put together.
crowd of molecules are under more pressure, he immediately rushed to his brothers, who lived until quite freely.Thus, they have increased the pressure there.This can be compared to the way the water splashing in the bathroom.Came running to one side, she immediately rushes to the other.So it is our molecule.In our perfectly isolated from external influences the system they will push up until the entire volume is not to establish an excellent balance.And when around each molecule will be exactly the same space as the adjacent and all the rest.And it will be the highest entropy in chemistry.Turns and conversion stop.
Scientists have not abandoned their attempts to organize and classify even mess.Since the value of entropy depends on a number of related conditions, it introduced the concept of "standard entropy."The values of these standards are summarized in a special table, so you can easily perform calculations and solve a variety of application tasks.
Default values of entropy standard pressure treated under the conditions of one atmosphere and a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius.When the temperature rises, this indicator is also growing.
codes and ciphers
There is also information entropy.It is designed to help in encrypting the encoded messages.For information entropy - is the probability of predictability information.And if very simple terms, this is how easy it is to crack the intercepted cipher.
How does it work?At first glance it seems that, without though any initial data can not understand the coded message.But this is not true.Here comes in the likelihood.
Imagine a page with an encrypted message.You know that the Russian language was used, but the characters are completely unfamiliar.Where to begin?Think: what is the likelihood that this page will meet the letter "b"?And the opportunity to stumble upon the letter "o"?System, you understand.Calculating the symbols that are the most common (and least likely - it is also an important indicator), and compared with features of the language, which was written message.
In addition, there are frequent and, in some languages and immutable letter combinations.This knowledge is also used to decrypt.By the way, this method is used the famous Sherlock Holmes story "The Adventure of the Dancing Men".Likewise hacking codes on the eve of World War II.A
information entropy is intended to increase the reliability of coding.Thanks derived formulas mathematicians can analyze and improve the proposed cipher options.
Contact dark matter
theory, which is only waiting for the acknowledgment, a great many.One of them connects the phenomenon of entropy with a relatively recently discovered dark matter.It says that the lost energy is simply converted into the dark.Astronomers assume that our universe just 4 percent fall on the matter known to us.And the other 96 percent are employed unexplored at the moment - the dark.Such
name it received from the fact that it does not interact with the electromagnetic radiation and emits it (all known up to this time the objects in the universe).And because at this stage of development of science study of dark matter and its properties it is not possible.