The definition of "nationality in Russian," Count Uvarov in the 19th century included concepts such as autocracy and Orthodoxy.He believed that the Russian people are very religious, and selflessly devoted to the tsar.If the second statement quite controversial, the first hard not to agree.No wonder Russia was famous for its churches, temples, cathedrals, and no one location, even small villages, can not do without God's house.
Status of the Lord abode
In one of the most beautiful places of Moscow, at the foot of the famous Sparrow Hills is the ancient monastery of St. Andrew (for the male fraternity).It belongs to the oldest Orthodox cult constructions Russia, because the monastery was founded not later than the 13th century, ie after 3 centuries after the adoption of Christianity Rusich.The current status of the institution - stavropigalny.He was assigned to the construction of the monastery or in the event that the cross erected on it the higher spiritual ranks.And it is very honorable and means that Andrew's Monastery and the like are not included in the submission to the local diocese, but directly to the Patriarch and Synod highest.
emergence of the monastery
According to oral tradition, in Moscow Captive about in the 13th century was organized Transfiguration desert, from which subsequently grew Andrew's Monastery.Desert monks traditionally called the settlement, distance from large crowds.Such monasteries or communities were not uncommon in Russia.As consolidation of Christianity as the main religion, their number is constantly increasing.St. Andrew's Monastery starts mentioned in chronicles in the 16th century, when the "deserts" were numerous, and its territory "gracious husband," as called by his contemporaries for metsenatstvo, good deeds, charity and exemplary morality, Fyodor Rtishchev founded the temple.The main patron of the institution was elected Holy Martyr Andrew Stratelates - famed warrior, suffered severely for their faith.Rtishchev no accident thought that in this place is to gain Moscow St. Andrew's Monastery.After all, in 1591 infamously he ran away with his army of Crimean Tatar khan Kyzy Giray.Orthodox people then thought that was involved in this miracle is none other than Stratilat whom they were praying intensely.
Andrew's Monastery on the Sparrow Hills became operational in 1648.He became the first refuge "to teach brotherhood" - the spiritual and educational center, which gathered the most literate monks of the time available for the study of spiritual literature, translation of books from the Greek language, the creation of texts of religious and educational nature.Or, as the ministers themselves say, for the sake of "book learning."In fact, the monastery was the first of the Moscow Academy.Democrat Peter King ordered the monastery to open a facility in which to educate and train street children, foundlings, orphans.The country needs educated people were, and their origin is not too worried about Peter.Unfortunately, the shelter lasted only 8 years old.In further Russian rulers Temple few loses its high value.So Catherine II just turned it into a house of charity, that is,almshouse.Then, the monastery is given to a cemetery well-born Muscovites and monks of other monasteries in Moscow.Sheremetyevo Pleshcheev and other famous representatives of Russian nobility found their final resting place here.However, most of the necropolis (burial and there were from 13 to 19 century) was destroyed in the first 20 years of Soviet rule.
At the turn of epochs
the early 19th century to the monastery of St. Andrew's was marked by the fact that on his farmstead built new residential premises - for the opened in 1806 almshouse.It establishes its merchant class of Moscow as a charitable institution.But the first quarter of the century was a period of 20 great trials.At the temple of the Bolsheviks ceased to operate at all: it was closed.Gradually, housing and other buildings disassembled, collapsed, and the foot of the Sparrow steeps there was an unsightly appearance.The revival of the monastery takes place only in 1991, when there is established patriarchal farmstead, rebuilt and opened churches of Christ's resurrection, the Apostle John the Theologian and the Archangel Michael.It reunites Andrew's Church.The monastery has a Synodal library.And in fact in 2013, then it begins to act masculine stauropegic Andrew's Monastery.
Orthodox monasteries in the capital of the Russian state a large amount.If you start to list all the monasteries in Moscow, their addresses will take more than one printed page.Because look at some.This is an ancient convent on Rozhdestvenka (stauropegic Virgin Monastery).The second oldest in Moscow Epiphany Monastery (Epiphany Lane stands, hence the name).Its founder - the son of Alexander Nevsky, Daniil.On the Big Ordynka was once open Marfo-Mariinsky Convent.Second name it - the Abode of Mercy and Love.