The ethnic composition of the population of Russia.

Today, Russia ranked first in the world in land area.However, this does not mean that the population of the Russian Federation in number is also on the leading position among other countries.The fact that a substantial part of the territory occupied by deserted steppes and taiga as the most remote areas of Siberia.Therefore, the density of the population of Russia is far from being in the first position in the world.

abundance indices RF

According to the first large-scale census in 1897, the number of the Russian population was more than 67.4 million people.These were people of different nationalities and races.Mostly dominated by the villagers.The reason for this was the development of the farming industry and agriculture.Moreover, as such large cities were few.Lived in them mostly craftsmen and merchants.

literacy rate in the early 20th century, the country was catastrophically low.Only 21% of people have at least a primary school.By religion population statistics shows that the majority of people in Russia at that time were Orthodox (70%).The rest of belonging to such religions as Islam, Catholicism and Judaism.Interestingly, three-quarters of the population were peasants.The number of townspeople was about 10.7%, foreigners - to 6.6%, the Cossacks - a little more than 2%, the nobles - 1.5%, and so on. D.

In mid-1920 the dynamics of Russia's population began to wear consistently positive nature.For example, in 1926 the country's population was about 101 million.At the beginning of World War II, the number of people in Russia exceeded 110 million. At the end of the hostilities - about 97.5 million. This is the only in the history of the Russian Federation a significant decline in the demographics of the country.And only 10 years later the situation has stabilized.By 1955, the number of the population of Russia has once again reached the mark of 110 million chelovek.Svoego country waited demographic peak in 1995. Then the number was about 148.5 million people.In the following 15 years there was a slight decline in performance due to the mass emigration of indigenous people in Western countries.Total for the period Russia has left more than 6 million people.

Currently, the population of Russia is equal to 146.3 million. Pers.

Population density

Geography of the Russian population is very diverse and uneven across subjects.Most of the inhabitants are concentrated in the territorial triangle between St. Petersburg, Irkutsk and Sochi.Causes - a favorable climate and a positive economic background.To the north of this region is dominated by permafrost, and to the south - the endless desert.

population density is one of the last places in the world takes Siberia.This region is home to at least 29 million people.This is only a fifth of the total population of Russia.And the area of ​​Siberia, three-quarters of the Russian Federation.The most densely populated areas are the bands of Derbent, Sochi and Ufa and Moscow.

In the Far East there is a large density throughout the Trans-Siberian route.It is cities such as Omsk, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Vladivostok, Krasnoyarsk, Khabarovsk and others. Increased population densities observed in the region Forge Coal Basin.All these areas attract residents their economic merits.

Statistics show that the population of the Russian Federation, the largest demographic strength is reflected in the big cities and capitals of the autonomous republics.It is noteworthy that rural land every year will become empty because of the relocation of local residents in large cities.

Demographic dynamics

modern Russia - an area whose population is increasing mainly due to the significant tide of migrants from neighboring countries in search of prosperity.The fact that the RF presently indicated demographic crisis.The birth rate barely exceeds the value of 1.5.Parallel to this, there is catastrophically high mortality rate.The reason for this are multiple components.According to statistics, more than half of deaths occur due to heart disease, about 15% - from cancer and its consequences, more than 4% - of the internal organ involvement.

is worth noting that Russia is one of the first places in the world in the number of deaths due to external causes (14.5% more).This is above the rate of the rest of Europe up to 6 times.Most of the deaths occur in accidents, including at work.Every year about 6,000 people are killed.Mortality of minors Russians kept at 5% of the total.
in 2006 were born in the country of 1.5 million children.The corresponding ratio rose to 10.4 points.However, mortality was more than 2.1 million people.Coupled with the migration rates of the Russian population declined by almost 0.7 million. Inhabitants.In the same year it was marked by a slight positive trend in life expectancy, which was 66.8 years.And yet it is quite low compared with other top European countries.

In 2007, Russia's population structure has undergone changes unimportant.As a result, the country joined the mass migration of more than a quarter million people from all over the world.This has reduced demographic backlog of Russia.Interestingly, the largest fertility were first observed in the Magadan region.

in 2008 and 2009.migration growth compensated for over 70% of the number of losses the company on the rate of mortality.The birth rate has exceeded the threshold of 1.7 million children, reaching 12.3 ratio.This positive trend was observed in 67 regions of the country.Parallel to this was gradually increased overall survival in the regions.

In 2012, the mortality and fertility leveled expected at around 1.9 million.The increase of migrants reached the threshold of 300 thousand.In 2013, the birth rate has prevailed over deaths: 1.9 against 1.87 million.Natural population growth was registered in 43 regions of the Federation.

In 2014, the birth rate exceeded the death rate by 33.7 thousand people.In view of the Crimean population was 143.7 million. Inhabitants.

's commitment to urbanization

Over the past century the rural population has decreased in Russia by 4 times.By 1914, in the outskirts of villages and a population of 82.5% people by 2014 - less than 26%.Today, the main population of Russia - inhabitants of cities and towns.

main reason for this growth was the systematic economic policy of the Soviet Union.During the period from 1929 to rural areas was conducted rapid collectivization and industrialization of society.In the early stages of reform shook the country a terrible famine, but later on the entire territory of the USSR there was a significant growth in the industrial sector.At the end of 1940 of the rural population began to gradually move to the city in search of a better life.

Reduced rate of urbanization was noted in the mid-1960s and in the 1980s.For a long time the figure was 1.5%.Already at that time, the city population was at around 74% of the total population of the country.Over the years, until now the situation has not changed.The percentage of urbanization in Russia is equivalent to 74.2%.It is about 106.7 million people.When the rural population barely exceeds 39 million. Zhiteley.Bolshaya of the population is represented in the city.Currently allocated 15 cities with a population over 1 million inhabitants.Moscow tops the list (12.1 million people.)., Followed by St. Petersburg (5.1 million people.)..In cities such as Novosibirsk, Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Samara, Omsk, Perm, Novgorod, Ufa, Chelyabinsk, Voronezh, Krasnoyarsk, Rostov and Volgograd, population figures are in the range from 1 to 1.5 million people.

diversity of peoples

Today, the ethnic and religious composition of Russia includes hundreds of nations and fully reflected in the Constitution.On the territory of the country is home to about 200 people.Each of them has its own culture, traditions and religious beliefs.

main ethnic people of Russia - Russian.As a result of a large-scale census in 2010, this nation occupies nearly 81% of the total population.It is more than 111 million people.All other nationalities are included in the remaining 19.1%.It is noteworthy that every year the number of Russian in Russia inevitably falls.Over the past 12 years, the number of ethnic mass decreased by almost 5 million people.In turn, during the reporting period has been a significant increase in migrants from Asia.

Over the past 10 years, Russia has moved most Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Circassians and Kumyks.The increase in the first and all was more than 22.5%.Parallel to this, there is a significant decline in some European nations.This list includes such nations as Finns, Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians and Karels.The highest percentage belongs to the first negative (-40.5%).

The largest number of nations (more than 1 million people) are Russian, Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Chechens and Armenians.Each of these ethnic groups is considered a key element of the foundations of Russian society.

indigenous population - Russian

This ethnic people of Russia is the eastern Slavs who lived on the territory of Russia from time immemorial.Most of the Russian population lives in Russia, but there are also large diaspora in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Belarus and the United States.This is the largest European ethnic group.At the moment, the world has more than 133 million Russian.The vast majority of them are Orthodox Christians.

In Russia there are more than 111 million Russian.They focus in all regions of the country, from cities to villages.Today the Russian people as a community of nations is about 77.7% of the total population of the Russian Federation.Most of the representatives of the ethnic groups living in Moscow - about 9.9 million people.In the area adjacent to the capital city is just over 6.2 million. Russian.The next largest regions are the Krasnodar region, St. Petersburg, Rostov and Sverdlovsk region.There is a total population of about 16 million Russian.

is noteworthy that in this national group identifies a number of ethnographic subclasses.In Karelia, the Russian people called Vodlozero or zaonezhanom, on the coast of the Barents Sea - Pomorie, in the Komi Republic - tsilemom.All these names the ancient peoples who lived previously in Russia.I wonder what his name is, and Russian from the central part of the country.For example: katskari, freeholders, Polekh, Meshcheryakov, Sayan, Tuca, Sevryuk, tudovlyane, talagai and so forth. In the Caucasus and Asia countries to allocate subclasses such as the Don Cossacks, Molokans Kamchadals Kerzhakov, Siberians, masons, Gora Markovtsevand others.

should also mention mixed groups, for example, a Russian Jew.However, in formal scientific papers this separation does not exist.

Tatar people

ethnic composition of the population of Russia by 3.7% is determined by the representatives of the Turkic-speaking tribes.Tatars live mainly in the Volga region, Siberia, the Urals and in the Asian region of the country.Recently, a large number of notes in the Far East.All in all, in Russia there are more than 5.3 million Tatars.It's the second largest ethnic group of the Russian Federation.

Tatar can be divided into 3 major territorial groups: the Volga-Urals, Astrakhan and Siberian.Most of the representatives of the people living in the Republic of Tatarstan (2.8 million people).Interestingly, the national language belongs to the class of Altai, the dialects can be several: Kazan, Mishar and Siberian.

majority of Tatars are Sunni Muslims.In rare cases, profess atheism and orthodoxy.Tatar national part is part of a largest subethnos: Kazanly, Mishars, priuraltsy, kasimovtsy, Siberians, teptyari, etc. Kryashens. Less significant in number subgroups: sticky and Nagaybaks.Interestingly, the latter are Orthodox Christians.

Ukrainian folk

ethnic Russian population is 1.35% of the West Slavic diaspora.Prominent representatives of the nation believe Rusyns and malorusy.Today, the ethnic group called the Ukrainians.After Russian and Poles the most numerous Slavic people in the world.Mostly living in Ukraine, but a significant part is in Russia, and in North America.

Historians refer to the Ukrainians ethnographic subgroups such as Polishchuk, Boiko, Lemko and Hutsul.Most of them inhabited the western regions of Russia.Currently, they are all united into one nation.In Russia there are more than 1.9 million Ukrainians.Of these, nearly 160 thousand. Lives in the Tyumen region, 154 thousand. - In Moscow, a little less than 120 thousand. - In the regional part of the capital.The following regions on the number of Ukrainian people - Krasnodar, St. Petersburg, Rostov, Omsk, Orenburg, Primorye and other. It is noteworthy that the ethnic territory of the nation is considered to be Europe's second largest after the Russian.Historically, it covers more than 600 thousand square kilometers

Bashkir nation

This Turkic-speaking people inhabited the territory of Russia from the Middle Ages.Bashkirs live mostly in Russia.Their cultural and historical center is considered to be the Republic of Bashkortostan.All the indigenous people speak a dialect of Turkic-Altai.

These ethnic minorities in Russia make up about 1.1% of the total population.They number just under 1.6 million.The vast majority of Bashkirs living in his native country (74%).More than 160 thousand located in the Chelyabinsk region.Bashkirov also increased the number of notes in Tyumen, Orenburg, Perm and Sverdlov.

Until the early 20th century, the entire national writing was Arabic, then translated it into Latin and Cyrillic.Since ancient times, Bashkirs are adherents of Sunni Islam.The main occupation of the population is still considered cattle.On the other hand, in recent years, the marked development of Bashkortostan agriculture, poultry and fishery.The male part of the population is often engaged in hunting.Women, in turn, throw the whole bee plantation.

From crafts are well developed weaving, embroidery, carpet weaving, finishing skin.Today, a significant portion of earnings depends on the steel industry.It is worth noting that this kind of activity Bashkirs were famous even in the 16-17 century.

Over the years, a way of life of local residents has changed dramatically.Nevertheless, there are still villages where semi-nomadic way of life is preserved.

self-proclaimed people Chuvash

ethnic composition of the population of Russia includes not only listed, but many other nationalities.According to the last census, the country is home to about 1.5 million Chuvash.Outside of Russia, there are only about 50 thousand representatives of indigenous nationalities.Most of the population is based in Chuvashii.Na today territorial divide 4 subgroups.In the west of Turi lived in the north - enchi the south - Anatra, in the eastern steppe regions - Hirt.The national language - Chuvash.It is a mixture of Turkish and Bulgarian.There may be several dialects depending on the geographical commitment.

main religion is Orthodox Christianity.A small part of the population adheres to Islam.In the east, the Republic remained a small village, where the only religion is ancient shamanism.All Chuvash very revere their traditions and customs, national holidays.

main economic sector in the region is cattle breeding.The republic is grown pigs, sheep, cattle, large birds.In the southern areas of preserved historical traditions of horse breeding.Chuvashia is rich in meat and dairy products.Local products have been exported far beyond the Republic.Overall, agriculture employs more than 20% of the Chuvash.

charisma and traditions of the Chechens

Originally called Nokhchi people.Today, the ethnic composition of the population of Russia by 1% are descendants of the ancient hill-tribes - the Chechens.The vast majority of indigenous people based in the North Caucasus.In the Middle Ages settled Nokhchi such historical region of Dagestan is Khasavyurt, Kazbek, Kizilyurtovskoya, Novolak and others. The total number of representatives of the nation is 1.55 million people, in Russia - 1.4 million.

Before the 1917 revolution, the Chechens called Nakh peoples.e.