In the middle of the XVI century the monarchy in France was going through hard times.Italian War, which ended in defeat, led to a severe crisis of power and economy.French feudal lords, counting on higher positions, the new land and the spoils of war were very disappointed and annoyed by such failure.All of their accusations fell on the king and his courtiers.After the war, the aristocracy was almost ruined.Therefore, the nobility, as a movement of the Huguenots, he immediately began to support and use it against the central government in an effort to achieve the most concessions for themselves.So who are the Huguenots in France?The answer to this question can be found in the article.
Catholics and Protestants
Western Europeans professed Catholicism, but by the beginning of the XVI century was the growing discontent among the faithful about how to conduct affairs of the Church.They were convinced that the Pope and his entourage only think how to strengthen their power and become even richer.Demonstrating their greed and avarice, the clergy thus set a bad example to parishioners.This discontent led to the fact that there was a new movement called the Reformation.His goal was to change the policy of the Christian church.People who joined this movement were called Protestants, because they did not agree with the current situation.
emergence of a new flow
Huguenot - a French Protestant XVI-XVII centuries.The earliest of them were called Lutherans after the German monk Martin Luther, who lived in the city of Wittenberg.In 1517, he made a list consisting of 95 points, which is posted on the door of his church.This document not only denounced the individual priests, and was a kind of protest against the wrong policy of the entire Roman Catholic Church.
Luther was convinced that everyone has the right to an independent study of the Scriptures.For this, he translated the Bible from Latin into German.He was the first, and after him, the Scriptures began to publish in other languages.
As expected, the Catholic Church condemned Luther.Much to our surprise, it was supported not only ordinary people but also some rulers in Europe.Thus, the English King Henry VIII decided to divorce his wife and marry Anne Boleyn.But the Pope did not give permission to do so, so the ruler of England to end the relationship with the Vatican, and then declared himself head of the Church in their country.
Following the German monk began to appear and other strong personalities who shared the ideas of the Reformation.As a consequence, there have been several Protestant movements.If in Germany these believers were called Lutherans, the French Huguenot - a Calvinist.The name of the faith received through John Calvin (1509-1564).He was a famous French theologian, and his writings was able to present all the available basic aspects of the Christian faith.
I must say that after such separation the faithful Catholics began to torture and even hang Protestants, and others, in turn, began to attack the followers of the Pope.But they were sure to suffer forcing their enemies, they are saving their souls from the eternal torment of hell.
Eventually Protestantism began to spread throughout France.First Huguenot - a believer, shared the views of the new religion.He could be a representative of the bourgeoisie and the plebeians, and a native of the nobility, or the feudal nobility.Later, the concept expanded.In the 60 years of the XVI century.and in the 20s of the XVII century.Huguenot - is no longer just a believer, he belonged to the whole religious-political group of Protestants-Calvinists.
division into two camps
beginning of military operations in France has contributed to the weakness of the heirs of Henry II.His sons - Francis II, who reigned only one year (1559-1560), Charles IX (1560-1574) and Henry III (1574-1589), often becomes an instrument of intrigue, who wove the court against each other feudal nobility.
Charles IX ascended the throne at the age of ten, and the regent was his mother - Catherine de Medici, who ruled together with his minions.By the sixties all the big feudal lords divided into two powerful religious and political groups.One of the nobles was on the side of Guise.They professed Catholicism.On their side there was also Catherine de 'Medici - Italian origin.Another part of the nobility belonged to the opposition and represented the Huguenot party, headed by the Bourbons, Admiral Coligny and the King of Navarre.I must say that at the court were those politicians who did not join any of the warring parties.They tried to reconcile enemies, which is what the Huguenots and Catholics.
beginning of the war
March 1, 1562 in the small town of Vassy the Duke of Guise and his armed supporters suddenly attacked the people gathered for prayer.These were the Huguenots, who were able to repel the treacherous Catholics.After an armed incident started an open confrontation.It was called Huguenot wars (1562-1598 gg.).They killed Antoine de Bourbon and François de Guise.Since then, the war, which was attended by implacable enemies - Huguenots and Catholics - has evolved into a series of tragic events, vvergshih France into chaos.
another armed conflict ended in 1570.It was the religious and political confrontation that shook the whole country.The war put Saint-Germain peace.According to him, the French Huguenots obtained the freedom of religion, as well as control over a number of the most powerful fortresses.
the truce brought ravaged country and its people satisfaction, but Awesome caused discontent among the nobles Catholics, in particular, the family of Guise - an ancient French family that occurs even from the Carolingian.
growing influence at the court
The leader of the Protestants was Admiral de Coligny.Huguenot by conviction, he was included in the Council of State, acting under Charles IX Valois.De Coligny, whose influence at court was huge, to further strengthen this long-awaited peace, convinced the king to arrange a marriage between Marguerite de Valois and Henry of Navarre.
Admiral Coligny was a great politician and diplomat, wishing prosperity to their country.He wanted France to become powerful, but the Catholic Spain, considered at the time the queen of the seas, do not give.Admiral advised the King to provide military assistance to the Dutch Protestants, who are fighting for their independence.He knew that if Charles IX agree, the war with Spain can not be avoided.But Coligny also understood that it would have united Catholics and Huguenots, as national interests above all others.
Catherine de Medici (1519-1589 gg.), The mother of the young king was very unhappy with the fact that the influence of the Huguenots at the court of growing.She did not want war with the Spanish Catholics.The Queen Mother felt that such action would provoke a national catastrophe.In case of war, the Pope and all Catholic Europe would be up in arms against France.
reasons for the carnage
In 1572, another attempt was made to reconcile the two warring sides.We came up with a plan under which the sister of King Charles IX - Marguerite de Valois - was supposed to marry the Protestant Henry of Navarre.Thus, the marriage could end the bloodshed in France, and the War of the Huguenots and the Catholics on this would be over.
wedding was held on 18 August.It was attended by all the noble Huguenots.Most of them are temporarily settled in the heart of Paris, which housed the homes of Catholic nobles.Protestant know just looked luxurious in comparison with them, and this caused great dissatisfaction among the urban population, which, due to high taxes and food prices could not live as well.Rich wedding was the reason for dissatisfaction, since its organization has spent a lot of money, taken, of course, out of the bag and so poorer taxpayers.Therefore, the situation in Paris, gradually heated until it reached its climax.
Murder of Admiral de Coligny
situation in the city was tense, and she was not slow to take advantage of the family of Guise.However, Catherine de Medici, they organized a plot to assassinate de Coligny.Twenty-second in August 1572 Admiral Guise drove past the house, he was shot in the arm shot fired right out the window.The assassination attempt failed this time.But the Catholics did not intend to abandon their plans.At night, August 24 crowd of angry armed men broke into the house, where he was brutally murdered Huguenot Admiral Coligny.It is a crime, and marked the beginning of the events, swept across the country.Thus began a bloody night of the Huguenots.
arrived in Paris for the wedding of Henry of Navarre supporters on the night of 23 to 24 August 1572 were cruelly killed.This savage massacre of the Huguenots in France, claimed the lives of about 3 thousand. People.
And it all started with the fact that Catherine de Medici was able to convince the young king in a plot organized against him by Protestants.She tells him that it is necessary to destroy all the nobles, who are involved in this.The king yielded to the persuasion of the mother.Immediately followed by an order to bring it into full combat readiness throughout the guards, as well as the closure of the city gates.
Once it became known about the murder of Coligny, over Paris rang the tocsin.He served as a signal for Catholics to top action.All ran outside with guns, and began the night of the Huguenots.Crowds of angry citizens broke into the house and kill everyone who does not want to be a Catholic.On this night, it was not just Protestants.Debtors killed their creditors, and who wanted to take revenge - leads his sentence.Husbands, taking advantage of the moment, get rid of annoying them wives and lovers - preventing them from males.The reason for this were the Huguenots, St. Bartholomew which was the last in their lives.All the darkness that was hidden deep in the souls of men, suddenly burst out and sucked the town bloody shroud.
Since the massacre of Huguenots in Paris took place the night before the day of St. Bartholomew, the event went down in history under the name of St. Bartholomew.
At dawn killings are not stopped.Catherine de Medici had not expected such a development.She had planned to destroy only the most active Huguenot leaders, but it all went wrong.The city began pogroms and looting.Ordinary decent citizens killed tens of thousands, and it is no longer dependent on their religion.All the murderers, thieves and robbers came out of their dens, feeling impunity.
power in the city was not, therefore orgy lasted for a whole week.The guards on par with criminals robbed everyone.The exception was only the Guard soldiers, who remained faithful to the law and the King, but to restore order in their city was not enough.
consequences of St. Bartholomew
unrest and riots taking place in the capital, triggered a chain reaction.Huguenots and Protestants were exterminated en masse, not only in Paris but throughout France - Bordeaux, Orleans, Lyon, Rouen and other cities.
to restore law and put the country in order, on the orders of King Charles IX of France in all provinces and cities had been sent to the document.It said that the murder of Protestant leaders took place with the consent and supposedly it helped prevent some anti-state conspiracy.Furthermore, it was officially declared that freedom of religion is not canceled.
Many Huguenots and Protestants, fleeing from violence, left the territory of France, as a result of their influence in the country has been weakened.
married to Marguerite de Valois, Henry of Navarre survived.But in order to save life, he had to convert to Catholicism.His example was followed by Henry and Conde.
During excesses killed at least five thousand. People.But, according to historians, the figure is much higher, at around 30 thousand. It should be noted that the exact number of victims is still unknown.
war three Henry
After the massacre of the Huguenots did not stop the war.They erupted with even greater force, resulting in the western and southern land separated from the north of France.There has been created a new union state Huguenots, manage governors from among the local nobility.They are something most and benefited from this "autonomy".
By the mid 70s, as opposed to the Protestants in the north of France was organized by the Union, known as the Catholic League.His head became Henry Guise.This league had control of the government, we are in Paris, and otherwise let the intention of King Henry III to conclude a truce with the Huguenots.
In the mid 80s the confrontation of two irreconcilable religious parties worsened again.He broke out a new conflict between the heirs to the throne, called the war the three Henry (1585-1589), as it was attended by the King of France, Henry III (Valois), Henry of Bourbon (Navarre) and Henry Guise.
cause of their quarrel was the latest statement that his family has more right to the throne than the others, since it is the ancestor of Charlemagne himself.The fact that Henry III had not got an heir, so the participants of the League wanted him to admit Giza official successor to the throne.So much so that in 1588, King began to pull together all the loyal troops to the capital.Their goal was the arrest of Henry Guise and his supporters.This was learned ligovtsy and organized the insurrection in Paris against the king himself.
Henry III had to flee to Chartres.There, he conceived a cunning plan: invite Giza ostensibly for the purpose of reconciliation.League leaders came to the king of December 22, 1588, but was stabbed to death by soldiers.Upon learning of this treachery, the capital refused to obey the Valois and became a city-republic.Her example was followed by others.
King realized that the country loses, and immediately announced his successor, Henry of Navarre.Enlisting the mutual support and concluded an agreement, two of the king and his troops went to Paris.But Henry III did not return to the capital - was killed August 1, 1589.With his death, the Valois dynasty ceased to exist.In the reign of the King of Navarre, who became the new ruler of France - Henry IV.On his coming to power ended in brutal wars between Catholics and Protestants.
Now to the question of who the Huguenots in France can simply reply that they were people of other faiths is much different from Catholicism.Protestants reject the worship of relics, icons, church condemned the issuance of indulgences.Such an attitude the Pope and his clergy could not endure, so declared the Huguenots and heretics helpers of Satan.Persecution began, which became the reason for such a destructive and bloody war that lasted for decades.