Among many state awards of Russia's history and special in many respects a unique place is the Order of Alexander Nevsky.Its history is unusual.Order appeared in the eighteenth century, in 1917 it was abolished, and then re-introduced during the Great Patriotic War.In 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist, but high reward emerging from the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union celebrate the exploits of the heroes of the new Russia.Continuity of this deeply symbolic.Knights of the Order of Alexander Nevsky - people serving the country, the people and not the political regime.On these stood, stands and will stand firmly Holy Russia.
Who was Alexander Nevsky
Born in 1420, Prince in the 22-year-old became famous brilliant victory over the Teutonic Knights.The defeat of the Teutonic Knights was not random luck.From a young age, Alexander was distinguished by righteousness and devotion to his native land.In addition to the leadership talent, Prince possessed no less important personal qualities, among which are the high intelligence, courage and undeniable gift diplomat.Reflect attack on Russia and, after he had to Battle on the Ice, but feats of arms, strategic ideas and tactical decisions, he skillfully combined with the conclusion favorable to the country's foreign policy treaties and alliances that strengthen the weight of Novgorod on the political map of Eurasia.
Worship and reverence Alexander began almost immediately after his righteous death in 1263.Just before his death, he managed to take monastic rank and gave soul to the Lord, wearing the monastic name Alexius.
The fact that this holy man became a symbol of the valor of the sons of Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great, and remained so until 1917, there is nothing surprising.On what metamorphosis occurred to him during the rebellion, the story will be discussed below.No less interesting is the fate of the award and today.
How and by whom was conceived Order
The idea to establish the Order of Alexander Nevsky appeared at the first Russian Emperor Peter the Great, the monarch but to realize it was too late.However, in the years of his rule it has been done to ensure that in the popular mind established the heroic image of the savior of the fatherland.And after his death, the prince continued to inspire his feat of Russian troops.Before the start of the Battle of Kulikov (1380) Alexander imperishable relics were brought to the defenders of the native land.In 1721 Tsar Peter decided they migrated from the city of Vladimir to the new capital.This process is somewhat delayed, and it happened due to the highest degree of veneration of the remains of the prince liberator.The relics were in Klin, Tver, Vyshniy Volochyok, and then run through the Ilmen lake, long settled in Novgorod.The pilgrims were many, but, according to the decree of the emperor, silver shrine moved to Shlisselburg, where she remained until 1724.Finally, Archbishop Theodosius of Peter I was ordered to organize the delivery of the relics of St. Petersburg until the end of August this year, and that was done.Emperor died before the establishment of the Order of Alexander Nevsky.Russia remembered his hero.
Order by Catherine I
Catherine I, the widow of the emperor-reformer, carefully treated to many of his ideas and initiatives.I do not leave it unattended and the idea of a new award.They became the newly established Order of Alexander Nevsky.List of awardees opened eighteen people - both military and a civilian, in this regard the Empress several distorted the general idea of her late husband, believes that the gentlemen should be only those who have crowned themselves with glory inverse.The ceremony was timed to coincide with the wedding of the daughter of Peter and Anna Duke Karl-Friedrich (the marriage took place in 1725), and it was the occasion to present the Order of Alexander Nevsky four foreigners-Holstein, which was obviously made for diplomatic reasons.At the same time formed and the statute under which the highest honor awarded by representatives of the military command, starting with the major-general.The same applies to the heads Privy table of ranks.In the same 1725 Catherine I found it possible to award this order himself.In general, the Empress for this reason to be.Its board of the total number of Cavaliers reached 64 people (including herself).
From Catherine to Catherine
Prior to the "Golden Age" of Catherine II about three hundred honored Empire received the Order of Alexander Nevsky.Among them is the grandfather of Alexander Pushkin, General-in-chief, Hannibal (known as Peter Moor), V. Suvorov, the generalissimo's father, academician Mr. K. Razumovsky, the first curator of the Moscow University, and many other prominent people.Foreign monarchs (including King of Prussia, Frederick II, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony August III, the Georgian King of Kartli and princes George and Balkar) was considered a great honor to wear this order.He was also awarded the Ukrainian hetman.
Awarded by Catherine the Great
Two hundred and fifty had awarded during the reign of Catherine the Great.Time itself, the tumultuous events that led to the growth of Russian power and the growth of its territory and victorious war contributed to this.AV Suvorov, MI Kutuzov, FF Ushakov - the names of a lot of talk every Russian heart.It continued the traditions established by Catherine I, under which scientists, historians and writers, too, turned out to be worthy of such an award, as the Order of Alexander Nevsky.Russia has always been rich in talented people, and a sense of their merit contributed to the glory of the country no less than an act admirals and generals.Among the awardees may be mentioned, and privy councilor AI Musin-Pushkin's contemporaries and descendants discovered the "Lay."Alas, among the Knights and was a notorious Moscow police chief Arkharov in which bloomed the arbitrariness of executive power.Well, mistakes happen at all.
Paul I took a change and unify the system of rewarding by entering a single order, differing on "classes", but the innovation did not stick.It happened that the highest order of the Russian Empire became the Order of St. Andrew, for him - St. Catherine, on the third place - St. Alexander Nevsky.The symbol of the award served as a belt, worn over the shoulder.Color - red, with the double-headed eagle, the national emblem.The Order was a silver star with the crown prince and the name of Alexander as a monogram, as well as circular motto "For labors and the fatherland."Cavalier relied special suit to wear on special occasions during visits to the court.When Paul appeared only eight dozen awarded, indicating the high status of the order.
Special condition Order
Interestingly, the process of obtaining the Order of the Russian Empire was accompanied by monetary relations court and gentlemen.The award was made subject to the contribution (200 and then 600 rubles), but and gave the right to a pension or an annual income in excess of this amount.This arrangement lasted until 1917, and the proceeds went to the homes for the disabled content and charity events.Monitoring was carried out by the Justice spending by the holders of a special council, which elects the most deserving.
Order had only one degree, but the differences were still possible.Additional awards were considered swords, diamond signs, and even diamond swords worn with a major star.Specific clarified the status line, which kind of uniform or wear a costume befitting the Order of Alexander Nevsky, with some other awards he goes, but with some not.
After the October Revolution all the king's awards were abolished.
Stalin's "Alexander Nevsky»
1942.The situation at the front is heavy, and at some point is really critical.A large part of European territory of the Soviet Union invaded the enemy.It's time to remind people about the glorious past and the valor of their ancestors.Orders and medals of World War II, approved in the first war years, symbolize patriotism and historical memory.Mention of internationalism and global brotherhood of workers are suspended in the press, in newsreels and in works of art.German proletariat under the Nazi banner trample our land.They need to defeat and drive out, and only then, perhaps, to talk about the world revolution.
Stalin gives the order to develop sketches of decorations, named after the great generals - Kutuzov, Suvorov and Alexander Nevsky.The technical committee of the home front proceeds to important government tasks.The artistic side of things entrusted to JS Telyatnikov - twenty-six artist (an architect).
film actor on Order
task before Telyatnikova was difficult stylistically all three orders should stand in a similar manner, it is assumed in the central part of the image of the character, after whom the award is named.Portraits of Suvorov and Kutuzov artists possessed.And whose face will carry the Order of Alexander Nevsky?The USSR was a great cinematic power.In 1938, Sergei Eisenstein made a film about the Battle of the Ice.Igor Telyatnikov found it possible to use the image of the prince Heraldry created actor Nikolai Cherkasov.Viewers accustomed to the fact that Alexander Nevsky looks that way, although the appearance of a folk hero remains unknown to this day due to lack of in vivo imaging.
quality and quantity
Order turned out beautiful.On the proposal to the representatives of the Mint on the simplification of manufacturing technology (easier to do it tselnoshtampovannyh) Igor Telyatnikov stubbornly replied that the award should be made of several parts assembled together.Stalin, after hearing both sides, took the position of the author.However, soon due to manifestations of mass heroism of the soldiers of the Red Army, he had yet to go to a simplification of technology.Basic materials manufacturing - Silver (925-I test) and enamel.During the war it was issued more than forty-two thousand of these awards.Many medals WWII produces fewer copies, but they sometimes save more.The thing is that receives high honor wear a picture defender of the Russian land only desperate daredevils, prized future victories over their own lives.Ghibli characters, their rewards are not always managed to save ...
Who were the Knights of the Order of Alexander Nevsky?List opened in November 42 th brave commander of the Red Army Captain SP Tsybulin and Lieutenant I. Ruban.It should be noted that initially it was assumed that the order will be truly the people's award and will receive her younger military commanders, including commanders of regiments, but later expanded the range of worthy to include division commanders and brigade commanders.The main requirement was that in their decisions manifested skill, courage and determination, qualities of Prince Alexander.What mattered, and the balance of forces at the time of a successful attack.If the enemy outnumber our part, rushed to the attack, and was thus destroyed or fled, it was an occasion to present the award to the hero.Then, according to the standard military procedure, followed by a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.Not often were cases when awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky honored with this award again (a little more than a hundred), and so did a unique case, if their breasts adorned three (known to all three of these brave warriors).
Thus, a rifle company commander Ivan Mikhailovich grizzled entrusted to him along with the unit in June 1944, boldly attacked the superior forces of the enemy, fearlessly approached his positions and fire destroyed about fifty German Nazis.On the captured fortifications hundred Soviet soldiers entrenched, they fought off six counterattacks.The next day the company crossed the river and went to the rear of the enemy than allow passage of the main forces of the advancing Soviet troops.So the company commander or gray became a Knight of the Order of Alexander Nevsky.But the hero did not stop there.The regiment was advancing, and in July the company IM Gray, showing heroism battalion resisted the Nazis, and then draw the enemy into a stampede.The second award was the deserved reward.
During the war there were a situation where units commanded by officers and sergeants.Order of Alexander Nevsky - a reward officer, but in these situations and serving enlisted personnel proved worthy of it.Highly appreciated the feats and a few women, who fought on the fronts.The officers of the squadron "Normandie-Niemen" French Leon Kafo, Pierre Joseph Risso Pouyade and received medals for heroism in the sky.
After the Victory Order of Alexander Nevsky over ten years no one awarded.During the Hungarian revolt a few Soviet officers, acting decisively and boldly, could succeed by leading a small force.They were presented with the award.
Prior to 2005, continued the presentation of awards to those who could not receive them in time of war.Sometimes heroes are not even aware of their rewards.
old New Order
After collapse of the USSR Soviet marks of distinction and military civilian award ceased.They were replaced by new medals and orders of the Russian Federation, in its form expressing the continuity of the Russian State.In addition to the Golden Star of the Hero, few rewards will retain its name.Appearance insignia was also significantly changed the symbols of the Soviet state gave way to a new (or old), coat of arms, double-headed eagle.In 2010, he established the Order of Alexander Nevsky Russian Federation, to maintain a high sense of their predecessors.According to the statute
award worthy public servants and other citizens who by their work or valor contributed to the prosperity of the motherland and increase its credibility.It does not matter whether made efforts in the field of military affairs, science, culture, health, education or other activities.Order of Alexander Nevsky Russian Federation may be awarded only to gentlemen of other top awards of the fatherland.They may be awarded by foreign citizens or subjects, if they contributed to the fruitful international cooperation.In addition to the main outlet and sign issued miniature copies of which may be worn on the uniforms or civilian clothes on the left side of the chest.He was recalled the glorious old motto "For labors and the fatherland", which is now written on the reverse.If a person previously awarded awarded the Order of St. Catherine, the ribbon symbolizing the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, should be worn lower.
New Order Knights of Russian
revived Order of the Russian Empire outwardly stylized cross, it does not have the image of the actor Cherkasov, but in a circular medallion, a central part of the composition, there is an equestrian figure, reminiscent of the Prince-warrior has become a saint.
somewhat changed and the order in which awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky.Photo Knights provided the media is not always accompanied by the publication of the relevant decree, although the fact of awarding is not no mystery about any of them known from public sources.Over the past four years, they passed over seventy.Among the awarded high honor and actors (VS Lanovoi and VA Etush), and Orthodox priests, including the Primate of the Russian and Ukrainian Churches Cyril's father and his father Vladimir, and state officials, and representatives of the business world (eg,. V. Deripaska).Russian Order of Alexander Nevsky is, and Belarusian President Lukashenko.Not forgotten, and those who have strengthened their labors sports honor of our country, among them Tatiana Pokrovskaya - coach in synchronized swimming.Deputies of the State Duma and Seagull Zyuganov also earned the high honor of wearing a chest image of St. Alexander.
However awarding occur infrequently.This order must be earned hard work for the benefit of Russia for many years, and sometimes decades.