Stages of development of psychology as a science from ancient times to the present day

Compared to the ancestor of the psychology of philosophy, history of its formation and development of the science is small.However, clearance of psychology as an independent branch of scientific knowledge of the past many centuries, during which formed knowledge and understanding of the human soul - such a "shaky", "unclear" and uncertain, but such a comprehensive subject, the study of which has dedicated itself to psychology.Thus, the main stages of the development of psychology can be divided into pre-scientific, which arose in ancient times, philosophical - very long, when for centuries collected and formed part of the theory of representation and observation scientists sages about the man and his "inner world" and Researchthat starts from the middle of the XIX century, when they began to be carried out the first experimental research in this area.

Historical stages of development of psychology beginning in ancient times.To understand the nature of man attempted by the ancient philosophers.They wer

e convinced of the existence of a certain substance that is responsible for his behavior.Materialists represents the soul in the form of the physical body, consisting of tiny atoms, idealists believed that the soul is immaterial, a kind of ephemeral substance, living independently from the body and enclosing a higher intelligence.The great philosopher Aristotle did not separate the soul, or "psyche" of the body, it is believed that it is located in the heart of man he accumulates a knowledge of the universe and thus helps the person to realize himself in life.

problem of the soul gave rise to endless discussions and in the Middle Ages.The theologians rejected the philosophical doctrine of the soul and the natural scientific research, believing that everything on earth, and the human mind in particular manages the higher divine being.Scholastics is trying to connect the theological teachings of Aristotle's theory and explain the processes of the earth in terms of the human mind, "illumination" of divine faith.

the next stage of the development of psychology as a science has to begin with the consciousness of the XVII century, and they are connected with the theory of Descartes, has created a mechanistic model of behavior.According to her soul, located in the brain and constitutes its essence follows on the motor nerves to the muscles, allowing you to move limbs and perform certain actions.In addition, the soul allows a person to control his actions, which distinguishes him from the animal.This dualistic theory, showing the existence of the soul, the management body with the help of a mechanical model, in spite of the development of knowledge in human anatomy and physiology, has long been a leading and was the starting point for the development of later psychological theories.

stages of the development of psychology in the XVII century, associated with the rapid growth of the natural sciences.Chemistry, physics, then in the XVIII century physiology, to get closer to understanding how the transmission of information in the human body, have contributed to the formation and the formation of a scientific psychology.Finally, in the XIX century it appears sociology and the first experimental laboratory, allowing to observe the reactions and actions of man.Since that time, the formation of new stages in the development of psychology as a science has on the behavior.This began with the German scientist W. Wundt, opened in 1879, the first laboratory for the study of the content and structure of consciousness.Later, a similar laboratory was organized in the Russian natural scientist VM Bekhterev.

Modern psychology begins its development in the twentieth century as a collection of various branches of knowledge, including scientific fields and disciplines studying diverse objective manifestations of the psyche and its mechanisms.Since the mid-twentieth century to the present day stages of development psychology - is the emergence and development of a number of directions and schools (behaviorism, cognitive, analytical, humanistic psychology, etc.), have their own ideas about man and the mechanisms of its behavior, often contradictoryother.However, with the deepening of the knowledge of psychological contradictions between different areas are smoothed out, there is an eclectic approach, opting out of the existing theories of the concepts that are more help to sort out those or other phenomena and to develop effective mechanisms to assist a person in improving and harmonizing his life.