From the very ancient times a person tries to facilitate his work.For this he uses a variety of tools.What are the simple mechanism?What are the different varieties of these devices?How are simple and complex mechanisms?On this and many other - later in the article.
simple mechanism (from the Greek. "Machine gun") - devices that provide mechanical advantage.Some of these devices have appeared in the very old.Simple mechanisms can be separate devices or be elements of more complex assemblies.Depending on the design type is defined and the scope of a particular device.The use of simple mechanisms facilitates human activity.These devices provide a gain in strength.For example, a wedge that is driven into a piece of wood, is more powerful than the blow to the device.Therefore, the tree quickly bursting apart.At the same time, the impact on the wedge falls from the top down, and of the logs are moved apart in the parties.That is, in this case there is also a transformation in the direction of movement.
There are several types of devices:
a) screw in the screws used as a drill to jackhammers, drills;It may serve as a lifting mechanism (Archimedes screw);
b) wedge increases the pressure due to the concentration of mass in a small area.It is used in a pool, a shovel, a spear.
lever - a device described by Archimedes.It may act as a trigger switch.
a) gate is used for the belt drive and lift water from the well.
wheel (invented in the 3 thousand. BC. E. The Sumerians) is an integral part of the gear used in transport.
piston promotes the use of energy to heat the expanding gases or steam.This device is used in steam engines and firearms.
This device is a drum (cylinder), which is attached to the handle.As a rule, it was used as a lifting device for raising water from a well.That gain in strength, which is obtained by using the gate determined by the ratio of the radius of the circle, at which a motion of the handle to the radius of the cylinder (drum), which is wound rope.It is the modern type of gate hoist.This device is a system comprising a cylinder and two toothed wheels of different radii.The gain in strength, which generally gives the winch determine the combined effect of two gates.Modern devices provide a gain in forty-one hundred times.
This simple mechanism is also often used for lifting heavy bodies.Win in force determines the ratio of the length of the device to its height, provided low-friction.Often, to create a large force (for example, for an icebreaker or chopping wood) used form of an inclined plane - a wedge.Its action is based on the fact that when a large force in the direction of the butt forming large forces perpendicular to the side surfaces of the device.Another kind of inclined plane is a screw.Like a wedge, this device is able to change direction or numeric value applied force.
This solid, able to rotate around the support (fixed).The shortest distance that separates the fulcrum and the straight line along which the force is exerted on the lever, called the shoulder strength.To find it, you must drop a perpendicular from the point to the line of action of the support efforts.The length of the perpendicular, and will be the shoulder.F1 and F2 - force acting on the lever.The shoulders are acting on the device - L1 and L2.The lever is then in equilibrium when the force acting on it are inversely proportional to the shoulders.This rule can be represented by a formula: F1 / F2 = L1 / L2.This principle was established by Archimedes.This usually indicates that a large force with the lever can be balanced at.The force applied to one shoulder, as many times greater than that applied to the other, how much greater than the second one shoulder.
how to apply the tools people today?
very simple mechanisms are common in everyday life.So, it was quite difficult to open the tap, if he did not have a small handle, which is a sufficiently effective lever.The same can be said of the wrench by means of which the loosening or tightening the screws or bolts.The longer the handle, the easier it will be action.For example, when working with heavy or large nuts and bolts in the repair of complex machinery, machine tools, automobiles, use the keys to handle up to one meter in length.The most common door is also one of the types of devices considered.If you try to open the door near her mount, it will be very difficult.However, the farther away from the hinge pen is, the more easily open the door.Enough clear example is the pole vault.Its length is about five meters.With this lever and correctly applied force an athlete manages to soar to a height of six meters.The long arm is with about three meters.Levers are found in different parts of the human body and animal body.This, in particular, jaw, limb.HOME lever are examples of pliers, scissors for cutting metal or paper.Machines of various kinds are also in its design devices that allow to get the win in force.For example, the pedal or the hand brake on a bicycle, sewing machine handles, piano keys.
Complex application devices
simple mechanism occur in various combinations.Combined devices include two or more parts.Not necessarily it will be a complicated mechanism - many simple devices can be considered comprehensive.Thus, in the present grinder handle (gate) pushes the screw and meat cutter knife (wedge).The wristwatch arrows rotated through a system of gears having a different diameter and are each in engagement with one another.A simple combination of known mechanisms is the jack.It used a combination of gates and screws.
Conclusion As it became clear, simple mechanisms greatly facilitate the work of man.They may consist of one or more parts.Thus, even when there are two or more elements may be simple, but they can also be a quite complex.Various machines, printing presses, engines include a few details.Among the elements there are levers, blocks, screws, wheels on axles, inclined plane, wedge.All these devices operate in the complex.Thanks to them, a man greatly facilitates the work.The transfer of mechanical energy from one part to another device may be performed in different ways.Chains, belts, gears, or gears are considered the most common devices in the transmission of the effort and makes the individual elements move slower or faster, in one direction or another.Complex and high-speed run, usually electronic devices.Electrical sensors thanks to special tuning show when you need to include one or the other mechanism, also monitors the correct and stable operation of the system.Many devices come in a modern man's life from the very ancient times.People are constantly improving complex mechanisms, thus expanding their scope.Undoubtedly, in everyday life various devices occupy a very important place.Much is impossible to imagine without the use of simple and complex mechanisms.Adaptations are widely used in construction, agriculture, in mining and in other areas of human activity.