tectonic origin of Lake Baikal.It is situated in Siberia;It is the deepest in the world.Lake and all the surrounding areas are inhabited by quite diverse and unique species of animals and plants.An interesting fact is that the Russian Federation is called Baikal Sea.
Currently there are disputes about how many years is actually a pond.As a rule, all adhere to the framework: 25-35 million years.However, it is about an accurate count of ongoing debate.Such a "life expectancy" of the lake is very uncharacteristic, as a rule, all of the lake swamped after 10-15 thousand years of existence.
General geographical information
Lake Baikal is located in the center of Asia, it stretches from the southwest to the northeast.Its length - 620 km, minimum width - 24 km, and the maximum - 79 km.The coastline stretches for 2 thous. Km.The basin of the lake is surrounded by hills and mountain ranges.On the west coast of steep form rocky.In the east, the coastline is flat.
This body of water is the deepest in the world.Total area of Lake Baikal is 31 thousand. Km2.The average depth of the reservoir - 744 meters.Due to the fact that depression is 1 thous. M below sea level, the lake basin is one of the most profound.
Fresh water - 23 th. Km 3.Among the lakes Baikal ranks second in this figure.He concedes the Caspian Sea, but the difference is that the latter salted water.An interesting fact is that the reservoir has a large amount of water than all the Great Lakes.
In the XIX century it was found that 336 fall into the lake water flows.At the moment there is no precise figures, and scientists are constantly referred to different data, from 544 to 1120.
Climate and Water
Description Baikal lake Baikal allows us to understand that the water reservoir contains a lot of oxygen, there is little mineral substances (suspended and dissolved)and organic impurities.
Because of the climate there is enough cold water.Summer temperatures layers do not exceed 9 degrees, at least - 15 degrees.The highest temperature of 23 degrees has become in some bays.
When the water is blue (as a rule, it becomes that of spring), see the bottom of the lake, if the depth at this point does not exceed 40 meters.In summer and autumn the pigment that colors the water disappears, transparency becomes a minimum (no more than 10 m).SALTS are also small, and therefore can be used as the distilled water.
Freeze Freeze lasts from early January to early March.Ice covered the entire surface of the pond, except that which is in the hangar.From June to September the Baikal open for navigation.
ice thickness usually does not exceed 2 meters.When there are hard frosts, ice cracks split into several large pieces.Typically, breaks occur in the same areas.At the same time they are accompanied by a very loud sound, which resembles shots or thunder.Problems of Lake Baikal is not entirely clear, but this is a major.Through cracks fish do not die, because the water is enriched with oxygen.Due to the fact that the ice passes the sun's rays in the water the algae grow well.
origin of Lake Baikal
Questions about the origin of the lake still do not have a precise answer, and scientists lead the discussion on this issue.Now there is evidence that the current coastline not more than 8 thousand years, and the reservoir itself there much longer.
Some researchers accept the idea that the origin of Lake Baikal due to the presence of a mantle plume, the other - transform fault zone, and the third - the collision of the Eurasian plate.In this reservoir so far changed from the constant earthquakes.
probably know is that depression, which is Lake Baikal - the rift.Its structure is similar to the structure of the basin of the Dead Sea.
Origin basin of Lake Baikal were in the Mesozoic period.However, some are of the opinion that it happened 25 million years ago.Since the reservoir has a number of depressions, and they all vary in time the formation and structure.Currently, the appearance of new continues.Thanks to the strong underwater earthquake left portion of the island and was formed a small bay.In 1959, as a result of a natural disaster bottom of the reservoir has dropped by several meters down.
Underground constantly happening heating subsoil is strongly influenced by the origin of the basin of Lake Baikal.Such land can lift the crust of the earth, to break it to deform.Most likely, a similar process was crucial in the formation of mountain ranges that surround the entire pond.Currently tectonic depressions surround Baikal from almost all sides.
Many well-known fact that every year the lakeside away from each other on 2-3 cm. The origin of Lake Baikal impact on seismic activity in the area.Now the area of the reservoir there is no volcano, but volcanic activity is still present.
Relief lake developed under the influence of the glacial period.In some moraines observed their influence.The reservoir fell lump sizes of up to 120 meters.Also possible is the fact that the origin of Lake Baikal was due to the melting of the ice floes.But we know for certain is that the pond for a long time not covered with ice, so it saved lives.
Flora and fauna
Baikal is rich in fish and plants.It is home to thousands of species of marine 2 animals.Most of them - are endemic, meaning they can only reside in the pond.Such a large number of residents of the lake due to the fact that the oxygen content of the water enough.Often there are crustaceans epishura.They play an important role in the life of the lake, as the filter function is performed.
stages of the study and settlement of Lake
According to the documents, which were found as a result of inspection of the lake, adjacent to the XII century the territory inhabited by the Buryats.They first have mastered the western shore, and later came to the Trans-Baikal.Russian settlements appeared only in the XVIII century.
Baikal has a unique ecology.In 1999, a formal standards that protect the body of water.The mode of controlling all human activities.Problems of Lake Baikal, are related to tree cutting, which greatly affects the environment.People involved in such things, be prosecuted by law.
origin of the name
This question is still unclear, and the data provided by scientists, are very different.At the moment there are more than ten explanations and guesses.Some are based on the version, which is the origin of the name of the Turkic language (Bai-Kul), others - Mongolian (Bagan, also Baigal Dalai).The people who lived on the shores of the lake, called it quite differently: Lamu, Beihai, Beigang Nuur.
Baikal can be reached from either side.Generally, tourists visit it in the Severobaikalsk and Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude.
A few kilometers from Irkutsk Listvyanka located - right next to the village pond.It is he who leads in the number of tourists.Here you can spend your holidays actively and plenty to admire the beauty of the lake.
On the northern shore of the lake is the resort Khakusy.In addition, you can find nature trails.