Figurative and expressive means .Figurative-expressive means of language .The role of the figurative- expressive means

most important means of displaying the artistic life in literature is language.What are concluded his wealth, strength, beauty and expressiveness?

As you know, an artist splendor of the spiritual and material world is transferred to the canvas through color, colors and lines.Musician reflects the harmony of the world sounds.The sculptor to create his masterpieces uses gypsum, clay or stone.Features of the language used by writers and poets are endless.Its use allows the transfer and sound, color and volume.Available for him and psychological depth.

distinctive feature of fiction is its ability to paint with words.At the same time poets and writers used special expressions of speech, adjectives, metaphors and other techniques.All this - the figurative-expressive means of language.They are extremely important.The rich language there are various figurative and expressive means.The table, which included the names and values ​​of these special tricks can give a visual representation of the beauty and power of Russian speech.


If expressive means of art - it is paint, color and line, in the literature to them, first of all, include the word.This is the basic language unit, which is the most prominent element of art.Expressive speech primarily associated with the word.Vocabulary of the Russian language is huge.It allows you to easily call any particular subject, his actions and signs.This can be expressed in a variety of shades of meaning and shows the evaluation of the speaker on the subject of the question.

word - are basic descriptive and expressive means.Examples can be given a wide variety.Thus, the master can be called a craftsman or a virtuoso, Artisan or artist, ace or spices.


use of the words can be not only in their literal sense.The main element of the language of language is often used in a figurative sense.For example, direct lexical meaning of "howl" means "prolonged cry of certain animal species."

secondary or figurative sense attached to its application in a somewhat different perspective.For example, the howling wind.In a figurative sense often they use the names of animals.So, the hare called stowaway, and bunny - a coward.If a person is clumsy, it is compared with an elephant or a bear if the cunning fox with something, and if stupid, then sheep.

have many words there an ability that causes the possibility of their use in a variety of values.This property is called polysemy (valued).For writers such words are a source of vibrant and highly emotional vividness of speech.In the works of many-valued element can be repeated many times, but to act in different values.For example, the word "gold".If you use it in the literal sense, it is possible to describe the decoration of the precious metal.However, the diversity of values ​​enables us to apply the word to describe the color values ​​or refer to the subject.It is said that, due to the fact that the different elements of the speech used in a figurative sense, this technique creates imagery.The data expressions and words are called pathways.


figurative-expressive means of Russian language is not limited only ambiguous words.There is a certain group of homonyms.These include words that are similar in sound and thus have a different lexical meaning.For example, the word "key" can mean "spring" or "master key."

Homonyms - figurative and expressive means of Russian language, which is divided into different types.Among them homographs, homophones and omoformy.All of them are rich sources of expressive speech.Such figurative-expressive means in the poem are a clear means of sonic games.


figurative-expressive means of Russian language can be used to create a humorous orientation.Most often, sound similarities different words or ambiguity is used in puns.For example, it was snowing and two girls.


figurative-expressive means of the speech can be enhanced through the use of synonyms.These linguistic elements are words that refer to the same concept.This synonyms differ in color or stylistic connotations.The role of the figurative-expressive means lies in the creation of beauty and expressiveness of speech.A person who does not speak the language synonymous wealth, can not build imaginative and vivid phrase.Poverty often leads to the vocabulary that in a speech repeated the same words, but there are also a tautology.

Russian language has a huge arsenal, including a means of expression, composition and techniques.Describe the existing color palette of live speech, and its iridescence unthinkable.To this end, in addition to the definitions will need to move into the consciousness of the listener and the whole rainbow of emotions and feelings that cover the narrator.

For example, a horse.You can call it a horse, nag, mare, Pegasus, and so on.. All will depend on the assessment of its strengths and attitude to it (ironic, serious or humorous).Many synonyms have the word "money."You can say, lemons and grandmother, bills and stuff.

figurative-expressive means have to be in the arsenal of human rights.It is necessary to master the art of allowing free play synonymous.Any cultural individual must know when to say "dog" and when "the dog" and so on. D.

Types synonyms

words denoting are one and the same concept, divided into four groups.The first of them are full synonyms.For example: spelling - spelling, linguistics - linguistics.

second group includes semantic synonyms.For example: brilliance, radiance, brilliance (one style, but with the different shades).

The third group included the stylistic type synonyms.For example, muzzle, face, mug, muzzle, snout.

The last group is a semantic and stylistic synonyms.These words have a different scope of use.For example, an agreement, a condition the contract, pact, agreement.

Synonyms - a figurative-expressive means of Russian language, which are used in the speech to avoid repetition, and sometimes for the opposition.At the same time they allow subtle differences existing shades.For example: it is not sitting, and sitting.


These are words that have opposite lexical meanings.These figurative-expressive means of the language is the same part of speech.For example, hate - love, dry - wet.However, in the Russian language there are some words that it is impossible to pick up an antonym.

presence contrasts allows you to make it a bright and expressive.This dramatically increases its emotionality.


In Russian allocate figurative-expressive means that are used in a figurative sense on the basis of their similarity.For example, the snow that lay on the trees, the writer can compare with fluffy white coats.

story of metaphor began in ancient times, when people explained to him strange phenomena of the world, referring to their own experiences and feelings.He compared the sun with a living creature, saying that it rises in the morning and go for a day in the sky.Dawn raged for ancient people.Although this flame was not.Stars from the sky looked like someone's eyes.In other words, a man known to him on the transport properties of many inanimate objects.Now we call it a metaphor.In Greek this term means "transference."These visual means of language are due to the creative imagination of man.For example, a sheet of paper, green young snake road traces, cringe.

way of thinking with the help of metaphors developed and improved over a significant period of history.There he is now firmly entered our speech.Sometimes we do not even notice how often we use figurative-expressive means, called metaphors.Many expressions and words that indicate a certain similarity with any object or phenomenon, several lost its original freshness of today.This comes from their long and constant use.An example of the most

become familiar metaphors can serve as expressions such as sails, swallow the insult, sour smile, saw teeth, and so on. D.

Education metaphors based on the principle of impersonation.These visual language facilities closest to the comparisons.Figurative meaning of words and phrases, repeated many times, become cliches, losing its freshness and appeal.It is known master of words, creating a host of new metaphors.However, they skillfully use the richness of our language.The literary works can be found expressions such as beads of fog, the smell of happiness and so on. D.

in art also apply deployed metamorphic metaphor or imagery.For example: a withered bush of my head.

Metaphors - a figurative and expressive means, which act on the human imagination and make him relive the feelings invested author in his work.


This is one of the oldest tropes.Its essence lies in endowing inanimate actions or qualities inherent in man.Impersonation is a form of metaphor.It appeared on the basis of religious beliefs, taking an important place in folklore and mythology.In these works, the phenomenon of life and nature is not endowed with the inherent ability to feel and think, and the gift of speech.Sometimes the embodiment is applied to the zoological characters epics, tales and legends.

What figurative-expressive means employed in the phrase: "the surf caressing the shore strip"?Of course, this impersonation.


This descriptive and expressive means of language is words used in a figurative sense.This is based on contiguity.In metonymy object or phenomenon designated by other concepts.However, it is inevitable to maintain contact or signs of bringing together these phenomena.For example, hearing a song about harmony, which alone to roam the streets, we realize that it goes to people.

Application metonymy involves the use of the name of the object, substitute the name of another.The connection between them can be varied.Thus, instead of the name of an object may be referred to the material from which it is made (he ate for gold).The communication may be between the reference and the contents.For example: even eat a plate.The instrument may be called by the action.For example, the poet's pen, breathing vengeance.Metonymy involves a link between the work itself and its author.Example: read Pushkin.Metonymy can be named and the transfer of authority in the name of his disease.For example: the head was held.Sometimes, saying "blood" or "home", we mean "home."It is also a metonymy.Such figurative-expressive means can mean anything the whole through its certain part.If the door sign prohibits enter the premises to outsiders, it concerns the whole person.


Along with the metaphor often in works of art you can find another kind of figurative-expressive means.It is an epithet.This tool is a speech-shaped element having a singular expressive and convey a sense of the author to his subject portrayed.Normally, the epithet is an adjective that is used in a figurative sense.For example: a black melancholy, funny wind, bright talent.Not every definition can be attributed to the epithet.So, some meaning and emotional load carries the phrase "nerves of steel."However, this does not include the phrase "iron bed".

epithet sometimes expressed by nouns (wind-tramp), adverb (look hungrily), participle, verb or numeral.In folklore, there are certain stable combinations of words.For example, the fair maiden and a fine young man, and so on. D. All of these are epithets.


Among the figurative-expressive language elements distinguish artistic exaggeration.They are called hyperbole.These tools resorted to when the reader or listener to want to make a very strong impression.This method is typical for works created by the oral folk art.This indicates the existence of hyperbole in the distant past.For example, in fairy tales and epic hero jumps on his horse below the clouds, above the forest, and his whistle able to persuade the land mighty trees.In these works, all grows to an impressive size, which indicates the power of the people's admiration.Hyperbole makes a strong impression on the audience.And it is used at present.Often, in his speech, we say that we are reckless or that any news already knows the entire city.


If you carefully study the visual tools of language, the table with their transfer necessarily introduces us to an artistic understatement.This trail is the complete opposite of hyperbole.An example would be we all know from fairy tales little man with nail, and Tom Thumb.


to him include paths in which the name of the phenomenon, a person or object is replaced by its characteristic feature.Paraphrase allows for enhanced depiction of speech.For example, a lion can be called the king of beasts, and England - Albion.The emergence of the individual is associated with a kind of paraphrase taboo (prohibition pronunciation someone's name).For example, hunters have a belief, according to which in order to avoid meeting with the bear can not pronounce the name of this animal out loud.That is why there was the phrase "master of taiga".


Among the figurative-expressive means of the language there is a special technique based on a comparison of the two phenomena.At the same time it allows you to explain one phenomenon through another.The most common means of expression is the language issued in the form of comparative revolutions enriched unions that like, just like and how .For example: like ripe apples sitting on a branch bullfinches.

Transfer comparisons can be made by other means.For example, a noun in the instrumental case with the verb.For example: a crimson sunset lay a fire.For comparison can be applied to a combination of the noun with the comparative form of the adjective - though more expensive than gold.


as figurative-expressive means of language is often used speed or repetition of certain words, which is located at the beginning of the proposals that make up the statement.For example, each line of the poem may begin with the verb "swear", "love", and so on. D.


very common trope is an allegory.Apply it with irrelevance to call a spade a spade.It was then resorted to various allegories, allusions and hints.In other words, to Aesopian language.The allegory is very typical of fairy tales and fables, in which natural phenomena, objects and animals are endowed with human qualities.For example, the snake symbolizes cunning and craftiness - the fox.


This is one of the trails, which are a particular form of denial.Expressions or words that are used in ironic statements have double meaning.This truth lies not in the literal meaning of the phrase, but in their opposite sense.For example, when referring to a donkey indicated his clever head.


This descriptive and expressive means, suggesting the location of the words in the wrong order in which it is established by the rules of grammar.Often, the inversion is used in the excited and emotional speech.Example: short-lived summer nights.