In society there is a stereotype, according to which the matter can be considered is that there are not only real, but also visible.This belief is only partly true.One of the clearest examples of invisible matter - electrostatic field.Magnetic and electric fields - a special version thereof.This is simple enough to make sure if we consider the electrostatic field and its characteristics.
Back in 1785 Sh Coulomb was discovered and proved the law of force interaction of two point bodies with electrical charges.However, it remained unclear how the impact is transmitted.A series of experiments, in particular, when the charges are arranged in vacuo.The law was observed.This suggested that the usual intermediate power transmission medium is not necessary.Subsequently, J. Maxwell (based on work of Faraday) was opened electrostatic field in vacuo.It turned out that there is always a field around the charge, regardless of the type of environment, and enables their interaction.
Since the field financially, it is "subject to" the formulas of Einstein and travels at the speed of light.The name of the electrostatic field is obtained by the fact that it is characteristic of the fixed charges ("static" - peace, harmony).The force discovered a pendant called electricity.It describes the rate at which the field acts on the charge made to it.
One of the characteristics possessed by the electrostatic field - is his strength.It indicates the degree of interaction of point charges.For the study used the so-called test charge, the introduction of which in the field does not distort the last.Usually it is taken equal to 1.6 x 10 to the power of -19 Coulomb.If the voltage is called «E», we get:
E = F / Q,
where F - force has an effect on a unit charge Q (for example, test).Using Coulomb's law for the calculation of Incorporation requires the dielectric constant of the medium.
electrostatic field is applied to any number of charges with a complicated system of interactions.Tension system can be considered in terms of superposition, so the net effect of N-number of charges is the vector sum of the field strengths.By the way, the term "line of tension" (a term, known from school physics course) arose due to Faraday, which shows schematically the field lines at every arbitrary point coincides with the vector of the electrostatic field.Accordingly, the more of such lines, the stronger the force effect.In contrast to the electromagnetic fields in electrostatics line tension is not closed.Also worth noting is that the metals (and other conductive materials), the field strength is not due to the action of the opposite direction of the field of free charge carriers located in the structure of the crystal lattice.In fact, the forces quickly equalized, there is no current, and the lines of tension in a wire can not penetrate.
addition of vector quantities, the field can be described by scalar values taken in each (ideally) point.The above figures are electrostatic potential of the field.We can say that it corresponds to the potential energy for a single positive charge at any given point of the field.Accordingly, the unit is the Volt.Determined by the ratio of the potential energy of the charge Q-test to its value, that is, W / Q-test.
potential is itself the work that make the forces of electrostatic field by moving charge from one point to another infinity.