Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance - it is psychological discomfort.He survived by his people in a collision in his mind two contradictory knowledge about the same event or subject.

People are not able to make the appropriate action to their thoughts.This acts contrary to beliefs that are part of the system of values.In addition, there are situations in which a person becomes an eyewitness to any unexpected events.In this case, a person commits acts contrary to his plans.All because of - the cognitive dissonance.

Examples of situations include the following.

For example, people planned a trip out of town and I'm sure the weather will be fine.However, just before his departure, it starts to rain.As a result, a person commits an act contrary to his plans - does not go out of town.

In another case, a subject quite sure of the futility of the use of an automatic transmission, is a very compelling story about its benefits.In this case, cognitive dissonance, though brief, is formed on the basis of new knowledge about any subject.

should be noted that in the works of ancient philosophers began to appear numerous motivational theory.Today, there are dozens of them.According to the latest concepts, preference is given to many authors cognitive (cognitive) approach.In line with this theory it attaches great importance to human consciousness and knowledge.

Among all the theses put forward by the authors, it is generally considered the conviction that value in guiding the behavior of individuals have no idea, knowledge, and opinions about the events occurring in the world, cause and effect.This knowledge is not considered to be a simple set of data.Human representation, information, which he owns, design, program his behavior in the future.Thus, actions and their character depends not only on fixed human needs.Of great importance are relatively volatile representation of the real world.

term "cognitive dissonance," suggested Leon Festinger.Under this definition, it is understood a tension between cognition (two or more).The term "cognition" Festinger explained as follows: it is any opinion, belief or knowledge, which relates to the environment, their own behavior or herself.

Cognitive dissonance in the form of a person experiencing discomfort.Man seeks to get rid of this feeling, to restore internal harmony.

Cognitive dissonance is also typical for situations where a person has taken a difficult decision.In such cases there is a need to choose between alternative close to each other in attraction.Once a selection is made, a person feels discomfort that is associated with the contradictions.In particular, one thinks that one to the present embodiment, the negative features, while that override the decision was something positive.Thus, the adoption becomes partially bad, but accepted.Rejected as a partially positive.However, it is not accepted.

Studies show that the effects of the difficult decisions taken after the adoption, after a while, there is an increase of subjective attractiveness of the option selected.Together with these subjective appeal rejected solutions decreases.Thus, the individual frees himself from cognitive dissonance, convincing myself that option is not chosen by him slightly, but much better than the alternative solutions that they have been rejected.