on teaching subject, written numerous scientific papers.There is a constant study of the educational process on the basis of which regularly introduce new techniques, given current recommendations.At the same time great importance is given to studying the problem of cultural development of the individual student.
Many modern school considers the student as a means through which the embodiment of the teachers approved programs and plans, in most cases, have nothing to do with those by whom they are implemented.In contrast to these institutions, in the framework of student humanist school is presented as a subject of its development.The learning process is based on respect for the personality of each individual, taking into account his requests, interests and goals.Accordingly, the environmental conditions are formed, which have the most beneficial impact on the child.The role of teachers in this school is not merely to prepare students for future life in society, but also to a full liv
role of the modern teacher
approach used in the humanistic school, is now the exception to the general structure of education in our country.It will be a long time before the method of interaction undergo significant changes.Special attention should be characteristic of the teacher.Within the overall system, each individual teacher has the right to take actions aimed at the development of spirituality of the child.The personality of the teacher should set an example of kindness, compassion, moral condemnation.However, no confirmation of received the lessons of knowledge in daily communication with the outside world is difficult to learn the student obtained the information.Therefore, the surrounding people, including parents, teachers must teach the spiritual child to his aspirations.In this case, the important professional qualities of the teacher.Teachers based on theoretical and practical knowledge could give the child the necessary knowledge.
education on human values
One of the most popular techniques pioneered by VA Karakovsky, based on human values:
1. Earth - the basis for life of all living things.
2. Family - the closest circle, have the greatest influence on the development of personality.
3. Homeland unique to each person.Divided into common (state) and low (edge area).The process of learning takes place in the form of studying the history of the territory.
4. Work in its various manifestations (mental, physical).
5. Culture, its types, properties, and the value that it brings to the development of mankind.
6. The world and man's place in it.
Education on cultural studies approach
This process is based on the knowledge of traditions.Universal culture is seen as the highest product produced by mankind.The main indicators of learning is the student breadth of vision, the ability to apply the knowledge and the level of his world.The main criterion for the development of a civilized society is the culture of the world he created, which is transmitted from generation to generation.Every individual living in this society, characterized by creative activity.In school, learning takes basic concepts of culture:
1. Formed ability to assimilate the acquired knowledge to further their use in life.
2. develop the ability to apply this knowledge to create on their basis for something new.
3. The person learns to react to events in the outside world, to know how to express their emotions, to communicate with others.
education in Soviet schools
stagnation in Soviet society, characteristic of the late 70-80th years, left its mark on the school system.Everywhere there were cases of silence detected shortcomings of the educational process, and dignity in every way to multiply, there was a general equation evaluation of teachers, training and educational work of the same type have become subordinate to a common educational standards.In the Soviet Union there was an authoritarian style of pedagogical management.
modification to the educational sphere in the USSR began in 1986.It happened as a result of the birth of pedagogy of cooperation.Its authors - teachers-innovators.The existing educational process by this time obsolete.In this regard, the teacher began to emerge that sought to introduce a definition of innovation and improvement.Change not only the system of teaching, but also the personality of the teacher has gained a new quality.It is noteworthy that the innovations in the learning process did not occur in any particular region, and soon in many cities and regions of the country.They immediately embraced all spheres of education, from primary school to senior.For several years, innovation has become widely teachers in mass across the country.It has become a universal and ubiquitous.Innovative teachers were of different ages.One of the most famous teachers who worked at the time, considered SN Lysenkova, MP Schetinin, IP Volkov, VF Shatalov and others.Based on its enormous practical experience, they have developed a new system aimed at changing the overall process of schooling.
new learning process
VP Shatalov - innovative teachers - thought that the primary objective of the learning process is educational work.At the students must first generate the motivation's value to the process of acquiring knowledge, arouse his curiosity, to identify their interests and needs, develop a sense of duty, to raise responsibility for the final result.Only then can you solve the second problem - educational and informative.The main feature of the learning process is clear organization Shatalov process.Each study subject they are assigned a certain number, known to all students.In this study it happened on the same algorithm:
- in the first stage should have a detailed explanation of the serial master a new topic;
- were introduced in the second bearing placards with which the previously studied topic was given more concise;
- at the third stage, the reduction in the size of posters to the level of support sheets with further study;
- included a fourth independent student homework tutorial and sheets;
- a fifth step consisted of reproducing the reference signal in the subsequent lessons;
- the sixth student posted at the blackboard.
basic sense of the theory Shatalov was the primary study of theoretical material, after which the practice was.It is interesting that the same conclusions by experimentation came VV Davydov.VF Shatalov thought that introduction of the new material should be based on aggregated data reception.Only in this case, students will be able to see a picture of the process under study as a whole, rather than fragmented.This aggregate success in the development of large threads achieved rapid development, accompanied by multiple relapses.
special approach to student practicing educators and innovators Amonashvili.His theory is the manifestation of faith in the abilities of each child.Characteristics of the teacher should include not only the skills of its workers.The teacher should any deviations in the development of the child considered as a result of wrong approach to the whole process of his training.Natural setbacks student should calmly accept, they should not dwell attention.This inspired the idea of collective ability to overcome all the difficulties that accompany the learning process.
development of their own perception
EN Ilyin - teacher-innovator, the education literature teacher, developer of many guidelines.His system is based on the principle of reverse study of a given topic.Literature as a subject, according to him, carries a primarily educational function, and only then cognitive.This innovative teachers excluded from the training methods of "passive" methods, which essentially boils down to the literal memorization theme textbook.Instead, they were introduced to encourage training methods aimed at finding the part of the student's sense;awareness and self-assessment of reading.Most of these techniques has been directed at the impact of the works on the emotional background of the child.Considerable attention was paid to the behavior, talk to the teacher's lessons.The conversation should be directed to the fact that after reading the works of the student had the opportunity to form their own views on the new information.As a result, the child develops curiosity, it will begin to study the new literature.With this approach, learning not only the student, but also his teacher.